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高中阅读技巧培养

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-8-2 19:24:25
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根据上下文猜测词义
利用定义推知词义
利用重述推知词义
利用常识或经验推知词义
利用搭配关系推测词义
利用同义关系猜测词义www.51jjcn.cn/xxff/7471.html
利用反义或对比关系猜测词义
根据所举示例猜测词义
根据上下文猜测熟悉词语的新含义
实义词词意猜测
代词指代理解
单句理解
弄清句子的类型和结构
简单句
并列句
复合句
抓住句中的难点
不要望文生义
段落理解
有主题句的段落
处于段首
处于段尾
处于段中
前后呼应
暗含其中
无主题句的段落
阅读理解的考查方向
综合分析理解题型
标题选择
中心主旨概括
判断推断题
直接推断题
含蓄推断题
推断作者的态度和识别语气
推断文章的内涵和写作目的
推断文章的来源
推断上下文的主题
① 从文章结构中找线索
② 从文章头尾中找线索
数字计算
图形辨析
If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. Dependi
ng on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to asgroupsor managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses.?
  Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses’ convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. "Who is that?" the new arrival asked St. Peter. "Oh, that’s God." came the reply, "but sometimes he thinks he’s a doctor."
  If you are part of thesgroupswhich you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’s notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn’t attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoats like the Post Office or the telephone system.?
  If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it’s the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark.?
  Look for the humor. It often comes from the unexpected. A twist on a familiar quote "If at first you don’t succeed, give up" or a play on words or on a situation. Search for exaggeration and understatements. Look at your talk and pick out a few words or sentences which you can turn about and inject with humor.??
  1. To make your humor work, you should?
  [A]take advantage of different kinds of audience.
  [B]make fun of the disorganized people.
  [C]address different problems to different people.
  [D]show sympathy for your listeners.
  2. The joke about doctors implies that, in the eyes of nurses, they are?
  [A]impolite to new arrivals.
  [B]very conscious of their godlike role.
  [C]entitled to some privileges.
  [D]very busy even during lunch hours.
  3. It can be inferred from the text that public services?
  [A]have benefited many people.
  [B]are the focus of public attention.
  [C]are an inappropriate subject for humor.
  [D]have often been the laughing stock.
  4. To achieve the desired result, humorous stories should be delivered?
  [A]in well-worded language.
  [B]as awkwardly as possible.
  [C]in exaggerated statement.
  [D]as casually as possible.
  5. The best title for the text may be?
  [A]Use Humor Effectively.
  [B]Various Kinds of Humor.
  [C]Add Humor to Speech.
  [D]Different Humor Strategies.
  第一部分 文章背景
  [内容分类]人文科学--说明文
  作为2002年第一篇文章,本文难度不大,是一种指南性的说明文,观点明确,论述清晰,旨在教会读者如何使用幽默。
  第二部分 语言点详解
  1. identify认出;识别
  [大纲词汇] identify v.认出;识别
  [衍生词汇] identification n认明;识别;身份证明,简写为ID

[经典例句] A reasonable man can identify the best method of solving the problem.
  2. sympathy同情
  [大纲词汇] n同情;体谅;
  [衍生词汇]词缀sym-表示"同,相同的"
  sympathetic adj同情的;表示同情的;感到同情的
  antipathy n.憎恶,反感
  [经典例句] Thomas Hardy shows his great sympathy towards his characters.
  3. alternatively做为选择,或者
  [大纲词汇] alternative adj & n随便一个的;二者择一;选择
  [用法解析] alternatively可以用在写作中,用来引导另外一个平行的观点或意见。
  4. St. Peter圣彼得
  [用法解析] St.是Saint的缩写,是人们对耶酥基督的门徒的尊称。
  5. accommodation住处,住所
  6. [大纲词汇] accommodation n.住处,住所
  [衍生词汇] accommodate vt.供应,供给,使适应,调节
  [经典例句] The university doesn’t provide accommodation for the first year students.
  7. inedible不可食用的
  [大纲词汇] edible adj适合食用的;可食用的
  [经典例句] Although those mushrooms look very appetizing, they are really inedible.
  8. canteen食堂,员工餐厅
  [大纲词汇] canteen n.食堂,餐厅
  [记忆方法]这个词很好记,它的发音与汉语的餐厅差不多。
  9. appropriate正确的;适当的
  [大纲词汇] appropriate adj正确的;合适的;适当的
  [经典例句] To attend the dinner party, you should choose the appropriate dressing.
  10. notorious,声名狼藉的;臭名昭彰的
  [大纲词汇] adj臭名远扬的,臭名昭彰的
  [联想记忆] notorious一词是个不折不扣的贬义词,和它意思相近,表示"名气很大的"英文词很多,比如:famous, well-known, renowned, celebrated都是褒义,而贬义的只有infamous一词。
  11. resent愤恨,怨恨
  [大纲词汇] resent v.愤恨,怨恨,愤慨
  [经典例句] The Chairman resents all the unfair comments imposed on him.
  12. disparaging蔑视的,轻视的
  [大纲词汇] disparaging adj.蔑视的,毁谤的,轻视的
  [经典例句] Please don’t make any disparaging remarks.
  13. scapegoat n替罪羊,代人受过者
  [联想记忆]记住goat这个词。在英文中与"羊"有关的还有black sheep,表示败类,害群之马
  14. off-the-cuff未经准备的;即席的;随意的
  [经典例句] Insgroupsto show your humor, you must make some off-the-cuff humorous remarks.
  15. exaggeration夸张;夸大
  [大纲词汇] exaggerate vt, vi夸张;夸大
  [经典例句] The managers exaggerate the difficulties of the situation to get additional financial support from the borad.
  16. understatement (一种修辞方法)故意的轻描淡写
  第三部分 难句解析
  1. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view.
  [结构剖析]:该句是一个复杂单句,句子的主语是your humor,后面有两个平行的谓语must be和should help它们后面分别有其宾语。其中should help后面的宾语是不定式to show,而它的宾语比较复杂,是两个并列的宾语从句:that you are one of them和that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view,中间用or连接
  [阅读重点]:本句结构比较简明,只需注意show them后面是两个并列的宾语从句就可以了。后面的宾语从句中有个很有用的词组in sympathy with,表示同情,同意,赞同。
  [参考译文]:你的幽默必须和听众相关,而且能够帮你显示你是他们中的一分子,或者你了解他们所处的情形且同意他们的观点。
  2. If you are part of thesgroupswhich you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’s notorious bad taste in ties
  [结构剖析]:if引导了一个条件从句,而后面的主句是两个子句构成的并列句。在第一个字句you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you中又有一个定语从句which are common to all of you来修饰the experiences and problems,而后面的子句的结构是一个it is adj for sb to do sth的结构。
  [阅读重点]:要看懂本句,重点在于要把后面的两个子句断开,并分别理解。
  [参考译文]:如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置来了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。
  3. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner.
  [结构剖析]:该句是一个祈使句。谓语是include,宾语是remarks,后面有一个定语从句修饰它
  [阅读重点]:注意该句的特性。另外注意off-the-cuff的意思
  [参考译文]:你应该(在讲话中)还包括几个随意的和似乎是脱口而出的评论,这些评论应该以一种放松自然的方式表达出来。
  4. Often it’s the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an unbelieving look may help to show that you are making a light-hearted remark
  [结构剖析]:整句可以看成是由so连接的并列句,前后有一定的因果关系。前面的子句是一个强调结构,而后面又是一个祈使句,其谓语动词是speak和remember。而remember后面又是一个很长的宾语从句。

[阅读重点]:要理解前后的因果关系。
  [参考译文]:经常是表达方式会使听众发笑,因此要讲得慢一点,而且记住抬抬眉毛或作出一个不相信的表情都能帮你显示你是在讲笑话。
  第四部分
  答案:1.C 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.A
Early one morning, more than a hundred years ago, an American inventor called Elias Howe finally fell asleep. He had been working all night on the design of a sewing machine but he had run into a very difficult problem: It seemed impossible to get the thread to run smoothly around the needle.
Though he was tired, Howe slept badly. He turned and turned. Then he had a dream. He dreamt that he had been caught by terrible savages whose king wanted to kill him and eat him unless he could build a perfect sewing machine. When he tried to do so, Howe ran into the same problem as before. The thread kept getting caught around the needle. The king flew into the cage and ordered his soldiers to kill Howe. They came up towards him with their spears raised. But suddenly the inventor noticed something. There was a hole in the tip of each spear. The inventor awoke from the dream, realizing that he had just found the answer to the problem. Instead of trying to get the thread to run around the needle, he should make it run through a small hole in the center of the needle. This was the simple idea that finally made Howe design and build the first really practised sewing machine.
Elias Howe was not the only one in finding the answer to his problem in this way.
Thomas Edison, the inventor of the electric light, said his best ideas came into him in dreams. So did the great physicist Albert Einstein. Charlotte Bronte also drew in her dreams in writing Jane Eyre.
To know the value of dreams, you have to understand what happens when you are asleep. Even then, a part of your mind is still working. This unconscious(无意识的), but still active part understands your experiences and goes to work on the problems you have had during the day. It stores all sorts of information that you may have forgotten or never have really noticed. It is only when you fall asleep that this part of the brain can send messages to the part you use when you are awake. However, the unconscious part acts in a special way. It uses strange images which the conscious part may not understand at first. This is why dreams are sometimes called “secret messages to ourselves”.
1..According to the passage, Elias Howe was________.
A. the first person we know of who solved problems in his sleep
B. much more hard-working than other inventors
C. the first person to design a sewing machine that really worked
D. the only person at the time who knew the value of dreams
2.The problem Howe was trying to solve was________.
A. what kind of thread to use
B. how to design a needle which would not break
C. where to put the needle
D. how to prevent the thread from getting caught around the needle
3.Thomas Edison is spoken of because________.
A. he also tried to invent a sewing machine
B. he got some of his ideas from dreams
C. he was one of Howe’s best friends
D. he also had difficulty in falling asleep
4.Dreams are sometimes called“secret messages to ourselves” because ________.
A. strange images are used to communicate ideas
B. images which have no meaning are used
C. we can never understand the real meaning
D. only specially trained people can understand them
 
B
Language learning begins with listening. Children are greatly different in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking, and later starters are often long listeners .Most children will“obey”spoken instructions some time before they can speak, though the word “obey” is hardly accurate as a description of the eager and delighted cooperation usually shown by the child .Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gesture and by making questioning noises.
Any attempt to study the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words leads to considerable difficulties. It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves as particularly expressive as delight, pain, friendliness, and so on. But since these can’t be said to show the baby’s intention to communicate ,they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new words to their store. This self-imitation(模仿)leads on to deliberate(有意的)imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises as to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech.
It is a problem we need to get out teeth into. The meaning of a word depends on what a particular person means by it in a particular situation and it is clear that what a child means by a word will change as he gains more experience of the world .Thus the use at seven months of “mama” as a greeting for his mother cannot be dismissed as a meaningless sound simply because he also uses it at other times for his father, his dog, or anything else he likes. Playful and meaningless imitation of what other people say continues after the child has begun to speak for himself, I doubt, however whether anything is gained when parents take advantage of this ability in an attempt to teach new sounds .

 We can make mistakes at any age. Some mistakes we make are about money. but most mistakes are about people. "Did Jerry really care when I broke up with Helen?" "When I got that great job, did Jim, as a friend, really feel good about it? Or did he envy my luck?" "And was Paul friendly just because I had a car?" When we look back, doubts like these can make us feel bad.
  But when we look back, it is too late.
  Why do we go wrong about our friends, or our enemies? Sometimes what people say hides their real meanings. And if we do not really listen, we miss the feeling behind the words. Suppose someone tells you, "You’re a lucky dog!"(你真幸运!) Is he really on your side? If he says, "You’re a lucky guy(人,家伙)!", that is being friendly. But "a lucky dog?" There is a bit of envy in those words. What he may be saying is that he does not think you deserve your luck.
  "Just think of all the things you have to be thankful for" is another phrase that says one thing and means another. It could mean that the speaker is trying to get you to see your problem. But this phrase contains the thought that your problem is not at all important.
  How can you tell the real meaning behind someone’s words? One way is to take a good look at the person talking. Do his words fit the way he looks? Is what he says shown by the tone of voice? The look in his eyes? Stop and think. The minute you spend thinking about the real meaning of what people say to you may save your another mistake.
  1.When the writer recalls(回想) some of the things that happened between him and his friends, he _______.
  A.feels happy, thinking how nice his friends were to him
  B.feels he might not have understood his friends’ true feelings
  C.think it a mistake to have broken up with his girl friend
  D.is sorry that his friends let him down
  2.When the writer talks about someone saying, "You’re a lucky dog!", he is saying that ______.
  A.the speaker is just friendly
  B.this sentence suggests the same as "You’re a lucky guy!"
  C.the word "dog" should not be used to apply to people
  D.sometimes the words show that the speaker is a bit envious
  3.This passage tries to tell you how to ______.
  A.avoid(避免) mistakes about money and friends
  B.get an idea of friendly people
  C.avoid mistakes in understanding what people tell you
  D.keep people friendly without trusting them
  4.The writer suggests that ______ be trusted.
  A.everybody B.nobody C.all the people D.not all the people

                                                 (B)
  The Internet has led to a huge increase in credit-card(信用卡) fraud. Your card information could even be for sale in an illegal Web site(网站). Web sites offering cheap goods and services should be regarded with care. On-line shoppers who enter their credit-card information may never
  receive the goods they thought they bought.
  The thieves then go shopping with your card number----or sell the information over the Internet.
  Computers hackers(黑客) have broken down security(安全) systems, raising questions about the safety of cardholder information. Several months ago, 25 000 customers of CD Universe, an on-line music retailer(批发商), were not lucky. Their names, addresses and credit-card numbers were posted on a Web site after the retailer refused to pay US $157 828 to get back the information.
  Credit-card firms are now fighting against on-line fraud. Mastercard is working on plans for Web-only credit card, with a lower credit limit. The card could be used only for shopping on-line.
  However, there are a few simple steps you can take to keep from being cheated.
  Ask about your credit-card firm’s on-line rules: Under British law, cardholders are responsible(对…负有责任的) for the first US $78 of any fraudulent spending.
  And shop only at secure sites: Send your credit-card information only if the Web site offers advanced secure system.
  If the security is in place, a letter will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen. the Web site address may also start with https://----the extra "s" stands for secure. If in doubt, give your credit-card information over the telephone.

Keep your password safe: Most online sites require a user name and password before placing an order. Treat your passwords with care.
  5.What do most people worry about the Internet according to this passage?
  A.A lot of stolen credit-cards were sold on the Internet.
  B.Fraud on the Internet.
  C.Many Web sites are destroyed.
  D.Many illegal Web sites are on the Internet.
  6.What is the meaning of "fraud"?
  A.cheating    B.sale   C.payment    D.safety
  7.How can the thieves get the information of the credit-card?
  A.The customers give them the information.
  B.The thieves steal the information from Web sites.
  C.The customers sell the information to them.
  D.Both A and B.
  8.How many pieces of advice does the passage give to you?
  A.Four.     B.Three.     C.Five.     D.Six.
  9.You are shopping on the site: http: //www.shopping.com,and you want to buy a TV set, what does this article suggest doing?
  A.Order the TV set at once.
  B.Do not buy the TV set on this site.
  C.E-mail the site your credit-card information.
  D.Tell the site your password and buy the TV set for you.

                                                 (C)
  One day an ordinary dog appeared in the ticket office at Campiglia, a busy railroad station on Italy’s main line. A ticket agent named Elvio greeted the strange dog in a friendly way, so the dog decided to stay. From that day on, the dog became Elvio’s shadow and was named Lampo.
  Lampo kept Elvio company(陪伴) inside the ticket office. When the weather was warm, he would enjoy himself in the sun on the train platform.
  When it was time for Elvio to return home on the train at night, Lampo ran after the train for a long way and then sadly gave up and went back to the station.
  One night as Elvio was riding home on the train, he noticed that Lampo was lying at his feet. Afraid that the conductor would see the dog on the train and shout at him, Elvio pushed Lampo under a seat. Luckily, the conductor did not notice the dog. Lampo came home with Elvio and met his family. then, after a short visit, Lampo boarded the last train and went back to the station. Lampo quickly learned all of the train schedules(时刻表).He would ride home from work with Elvio every night and then ride back to the station alone. Every morning, Lampo arrived at Elvio’s house in time to walk his young daughter, Mivna, to school. The faithful dog would then takeanother train to Campiglia to spend time with his master, then travel againto accompany Mivna home from school at 11∶30.
  Soon, Lampo began to take the trains all over Italy. Lampo became famous among the men who worked on the railroad, as his journeys became more frequent, complicated and mysterious. No one could explain why he traveled or how he always found the right train back to Campiglia. People decided that Lampo was a unique dog.
  Some of the railroad officials were against Lampo’s illegal travels. They were afraid he would bite a passenger or cause some other problems. Finally, the stationmaster threastened(威胁) to call the dogcatcher if Elvio didn’t get rid of the dog.
  Elvio decided to put Lampo on a train going as far away as possible. Months went by and Lampo did not come back. Mivna missed him very much and prayed for his return. Finally one day, a sad, very thin, tired Lampo returned to Elvio’s office.Everyone, even the stationmaster, was sorry about what had happened. From then on, Lampo was allowed to ride the trains whenever he wanted. After seven years, Lampo grew old, and he began to need Elvio’s help to board the train.
  One day Lampo was seen lying dead on the tracks. A year later, a life-sized statue(雕像) of Lampo was set up at Campiglia station.
  10.The first time Lampo took the train, Elvio was ______.
  A.delighted that he was lucky       
  B.afraid the dog would bite someone
  C.afraid the conductor would see him and be angry
  D.excited that Lampo would soon meet his family
  11.Lampo’s traveling all over Italy caused people to believe that ______.
  A.he could read the train schedules
  B.he was famous in the country
  C.Elvio secretly helped him
  D.he was a very special dog
  12.The stationmaster threastened that if Elvio didn’t get rid of the dog, ______.
  A.Elvio would be fired
  B.Lampo would be put on the train tracks
  C.the stationmaster would send him away
  D.a dogcatcher would be called
  13.Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the story?

A.The dog was once sent away by Elvio.
  B.The dog finally won the stationmaster’s heart.
  C.The dog was faithful to his master.
  D.The dog died when he was seven years old.
  14.The author suggests that a statue of Lampo was set up because ______.
  A.the stationmaster felt sorry about what had happened
  B.he had been a friend to travelers
  C.it would bring good luck to the town
  D.Elvio offered money to set up the statue

    答案:
  (A)1.B 2.D 3.C 4.D (B)5.B 6.A 7.B 8.A 9.B (C)10.C 11.D 12.D 13.D 14.B


                                              (A)
  We can make mistakes at any age. Some mistakes we make are about money. but most mistakes are about people. "Did Jerry really care when I broke up with Helen?" "When I got that great job, did Jim, as a friend, really feel good about it? Or did he envy my luck?" "And was Paul friendly just because I had a car?" When we look back, doubts like these can make us feel bad.
  But when we look back, it is too late.
  Why do we go wrong about our friends, or our enemies? Sometimes what people say hides their real meanings. And if we do not really listen, we miss the feeling behind the words. Suppose someone tells you, "You’re a lucky dog!"(你真幸运!) Is he really on your side? If he says, "You’re a lucky guy(人,家伙)!", that is being friendly. But "a lucky dog?" There is a bit of envy in those words. What he may be saying is that he does not think you deserve your luck.
  "Just think of all the things you have to be thankful for" is another phrase that says one thing and means another. It could mean that the speaker is trying to get you to see your problem. But this phrase contains the thought that your problem is not at all important.
  How can you tell the real meaning behind someone’s words? One way is to take a good look at the person talking. Do his words fit the way he looks? Is what he says shown by the tone of voice? The look in his eyes? Stop and think. The minute you spend thinking about the real meaning of what people say to you may save your another mistake.
  1.When the writer recalls(回想) some of the things that happened between him and his friends, he _______.
  A.feels happy, thinking how nice his friends were to him
  B.feels he might not have understood his friends’ true feelings
  C.think it a mistake to have broken up with his girl friend
  D.is sorry that his friends let him down
  2.When the writer talks about someone saying, "You’re a lucky dog!", he is saying that ______.
  A.the speaker is just friendly
  B.this sentence suggests the same as "You’re a lucky guy!"
  C.the word "dog" should not be used to apply to people
  D.sometimes the words show that the speaker is a bit envious
  3.This passage tries to tell you how to ______.
  A.avoid(避免) mistakes about money and friends
  B.get an idea of friendly people
  C.avoid mistakes in understanding what people tell you
  D.keep people friendly without trusting them
  4.The writer suggests that ______ be trusted.
  A.everybody B.nobody C.all the people D.not all the people

                                                 (B)
  The Internet has led to a huge increase in credit-card(信用卡) fraud. Your card information could even be for sale in an illegal Web site(网站). Web sites offering cheap goods and services should be regarded with care. On-line shoppers who enter their credit-card information may never
  receive the goods they thought they bought.
  The thieves then go shopping with your card number----or sell the information over the Internet.
  Computers hackers(黑客) have broken down security(安全) systems, raising questions about the safety of cardholder information. Several months ago, 25 000 customers of CD Universe, an on-line music retailer(批发商), were not lucky. Their names, addresses and credit-card numbers were posted on a Web site after the retailer refused to pay US $157 828 to get back the information.
  Credit-card firms are now fighting against on-line fraud. Mastercard is working on plans for Web-only credit card, with a lower credit limit. The card could be used only for shopping on-line.

However, there are a few simple steps you can take to keep from being cheated.
  Ask about your credit-card firm’s on-line rules: Under British law, cardholders are responsible(对…负有责任的) for the first US $78 of any fraudulent spending.
  And shop only at secure sites: Send your credit-card information only if the Web site offers advanced secure system.
  If the security is in place, a letter will appear in the bottom right-hand corner of your screen. the Web site address may also start with https://----the extra "s" stands for secure. If in doubt, give your credit-card information over the telephone.
  Keep your password safe: Most online sites require a user name and password before placing an order. Treat your passwords with care.
  5.What do most people worry about the Internet according to this passage?
  A.A lot of stolen credit-cards were sold on the Internet.
  B.Fraud on the Internet.
  C.Many Web sites are destroyed.
  D.Many illegal Web sites are on the Internet.
  6.What is the meaning of "fraud"?
  A.cheating    B.sale   C.payment    D.safety
  7.How can the thieves get the information of the credit-card?
  A.The customers give them the information.
  B.The thieves steal the information from Web sites.
  C.The customers sell the information to them.
  D.Both A and B.
  8.How many pieces of advice does the passage give to you?
  A.Four.     B.Three.     C.Five.     D.Six.
  9.You are shopping on the site: http: //www.shopping.com,and you want to buy a TV set, what does this article suggest doing?
  A.Order the TV set at once.
  B.Do not buy the TV set on this site.
  C.E-mail the site your credit-card information.
  D.Tell the site your password and buy the TV set for you.

                                                 (C)
  One day an ordinary dog appeared in the ticket office at Campiglia, a busy railroad station on Italy’s main line. A ticket agent named Elvio greeted the strange dog in a friendly way, so the dog decided to stay. From that day on, the dog became Elvio’s shadow and was named Lampo.
  Lampo kept Elvio company(陪伴) inside the ticket office. When the weather was warm, he would enjoy himself in the sun on the train platform.
  When it was time for Elvio to return home on the train at night, Lampo ran after the train for a long way and then sadly gave up and went back to the station.
  One night as Elvio was riding home on the train, he noticed that Lampo was lying at his feet. Afraid that the conductor would see the dog on the train and shout at him, Elvio pushed Lampo under a seat. Luckily, the conductor did not notice the dog. Lampo came home with Elvio and met his family. then, after a short visit, Lampo boarded the last train and went back to the station. Lampo quickly learned all of the train schedules(时刻表).He would ride home from work with Elvio every night and then ride back to the station alone. Every morning, Lampo arrived at Elvio’s house in time to walk his young daughter, Mivna, to school. The faithful dog would then takeanother train to Campiglia to spend time with his master, then travel againto accompany Mivna home from school at 11∶30.
  Soon, Lampo began to take the trains all over Italy. Lampo became famous among the men who worked on the railroad, as his journeys became more frequent, complicated and mysterious. No one could explain why he traveled or how he always found the right train back to Campiglia. People decided that Lampo was a unique dog.
  Some of the railroad officials were against Lampo’s illegal travels. They were afraid he would bite a passenger or cause some other problems. Finally, the stationmaster threastened(威胁) to call the dogcatcher if Elvio didn’t get rid of the dog.
  Elvio decided to put Lampo on a train going as far away as possible. Months went by and Lampo did not come back. Mivna missed him very much and prayed for his return. Finally one day, a sad, very thin, tired Lampo returned to Elvio’s office.Everyone, even the stationmaster, was sorry about what had happened. From then on, Lampo was allowed to ride the trains whenever he wanted. After seven years, Lampo grew old, and he began to need Elvio’s help to board the train.
  One day Lampo was seen lying dead on the tracks. A year later, a life-sized statue(雕像) of Lampo was set up at Campiglia station.
  10.The first time Lampo took the train, Elvio was ______.
  A.delighted that he was lucky       
  B.afraid the dog would bite someone

C.afraid the conductor would see him and be angry
  D.excited that Lampo would soon meet his family
  11.Lampo’s traveling all over Italy caused people to believe that ______.
  A.he could read the train schedules
  B.he was famous in the country
  C.Elvio secretly helped him
  D.he was a very special dog
  12.The stationmaster threastened that if Elvio didn’t get rid of the dog, ______.
  A.Elvio would be fired
  B.Lampo would be put on the train tracks
  C.the stationmaster would send him away
  D.a dogcatcher would be called
  13.Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the story?
  A.The dog was once sent away by Elvio.
  B.The dog finally won the stationmaster’s heart.
  C.The dog was faithful to his master.
  D.The dog died when he was seven years old.
  14.The author suggests that a statue of Lampo was set up because ______.
  A.the stationmaster felt sorry about what had happened
  B.he had been a friend to travelers
  C.it would bring good luck to the town
  D.Elvio offered money to set up the statue

    答案:
  (A)1.B 2.D 3.C 4.D (B)5.B 6.A 7.B 8.A 9.B (C)10.C 11.D 12.D 13.D 14.B
A)

  Americans often say that there are only two things a person can be sure of in life: death and taxes. Many people feel that the United States has the worst taxes in the world.

  Taxes are the money that people pay to support their government. There are generally three levels of government in the United States; federal(联邦的), state and city; therefore,there are three types of taxes.

  Salaried people who earn more than four to five thousand dollars per year must pay a certain part of their salaries to the federal government. The percentage varies for different people. It depends on their salaries. The federal government has a two?level income tax; that is, 15 or 28 percent. $17,850 is the cut?off. The tax rate is 15 percent below $17,850 and 28 percent above.

  The second tax is for the state government: New York, California, or any of the other forty?eight states; Some states have an income tax similar to that of the federal government. Of course,the percentage for the state tax is lower. Other states have a sales tax, which is a percentage charged to any item which people buy in the state. Some states use income tax and sales tax to raise their revenues(税收).

  The third tax is for the city. This tax comes in two forms: property tax (residents who own a home have to pay taxes on it) and excise tax(货物税),which is collected on vehicles in a city. The cities use this money for education,police,public works, etc.

  Since Americans pay such high taxes, they often feel that they are working one day each week just to pay their taxes. People always complain about taxes. They often say that the government misuses their tax dollars. They all believe that taxes are too high in this country.

  1. How much money does an American earning $40,000 per year pay to the federal government as income tax?

  A. 28% of this income.

  B. 15% of this income.

  C. $17,850. D. $5,000.

  2. What tax does an American have to pay to the city if he owns a car?

  A. Property tax. B. Excise tax.

  C. Income tax. D. Sales tax.

  (B)

  Overhead bridges are found in many parts of Beijing, especially in places where traffic is very heavy and crossing the road is dangerous.

  The purpose of these bridges is to enable pedestrians(行人)to cross roads safely. Overhead bridges are used in very much the same way as zebra crossings. They are more efficient although less convenient because people have to climb up a long flight of steps. This is inconvenient especially to older people. When pedestrians use an overhead bridge,they do not hold up traffic. However,when they cross a busy road using a zebra crossing, traffic is held up, this is why the government has built many overhead bridges to help pedestrians and to keep traffic moving at the same time.

  The government of Beijing has spent a large amount of money in building these bridges. For their own safety,pedestrians should be encouraged to use them instead of risking their lives by dashing across the road. Old people,however, may find it a little difficult to climb up and down the steps,but it is still much safer than walking across the road with all the danger of moving traffic.

  Overhead bridges serve a very useful purpose. Pedestrians,both old and young,should make it a habit to use them. This will prevent unnecessary accidents and loss of life.

  3. The underlined words "a zebra crossing" means "______".

  A. a safe place across a road for pedestrians to walk across the road

  B. a wild animal from Africa that looks like a horse with broad dark brown and white stripes on its body

C. a safe place across a road for zebra to walk across the road

  D. a safe place across a road for children to play a game

  4. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. Overhead bridges are found in every part of Beijing.

  B. Overhead bridges are only found in the centre of Beijing.

  C. Overhead bridges are found in many parts of small cities in China.

  D. Overhead bridges are found in places where traffic is heavy.

  [答案与解析]

  1. A。本题考查内容细节。第三段最后两句即本题答案出处。

  2. B。本题也是考查内容细节。第五段即本题答案出处。

  3. A。本题是猜测词义题。根据第二段前两句的句子大意,便可猜测出划线词语的意思。

  4. D。本文第一段与选项D的意思一致。
A )

  Not everyone in the world requires the same amount of living space. The amount of space a person needs around him is a cultural difference,not an economic one. Knowing your own psychological (心理的) space needs is important because they strongly affect your choices,including,for example,the number of bedrooms in the home. If you were brought up in a two-child family and both you and your sister or brother had your own bedrooms,the chances are,if you have two children or more,that you also will offer separate bedrooms for them. In America,for example,they train people to want to have their own rooms by giving them their own rooms when they are babies. This is very rare in the world. In many other countries,the baby sleeps in the same bed with his parents or in bed near them.

  The space in the home also shows a lot about psychological space needs. Some families gather closer to each other and the size of their house has nothing to do with it. Others have separate little corners where family members go to bed alone.

  Although it is true that psychological space needs are not decided by economic reasons,they sometimes have to be changed a little because of economic pressures. It is almost impossible,however,to completely change your psychological space needs.

  1. The underlined sentence in Paragraph 1 means " ______ ".

  A. No two people need exactly the same amount of living space

  B. The requirements of living space are not always the same

  C. The world requires the same amount of living space

  D. Nobody needs a required amount of living space

  2. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

  A. Americans are trained to live in large rooms at birth.

  B. Economic situation decides one’s amount of space needs.

  C. People in various countries demand different psychological space.

  D. Knowing your psychological space needs is important, as it affects your future.

  ( B )

  The Red Cross is an international organization which cares for people who are in need of help. A man in Paris hospital who needs blood,a woman in Mexico who was injured in an earthquake,and a family in India that lost their home in a storm may all be aided by the Red Cross.

  The Red Cross exists in almost every country around the globe. The world Red Cross organizations are sometimes called the Red Crescent,the Red Mogen David,the Sun,and the Red Lion. All of these agencies (机构) share a common goal of trying to help people in need.

  The idea of forming an organization to help the sick and wounded during a war started with Jean Henri Dunant. In 1859,he observed how people were suffering on a battle field in Italy. He wanted to help all the wounded people regardless of which side they were fighting for. The most important result of his work was an international treaty(条约)called the Geneva Convention. It protects prisoners of war,the sick and wounded, and other citizens during a war.

  The American Red Cross was set up by Clara Barton in 1881. Today the Red Cross in the United States provides a number of services for the public,such as helping people in need,teaching first aid and providing blood.

  3. A good title for this selection is ______ .

  A. People in Need of Help

  B. Safety and Protection

  C. The International Red Cross

  D. Forming an Organization to Help the Soldiers

  4. The underlined word "aided" in Paragraph 1 means

  " ______ ".

  A. needed B. helped C. caught D. protected

  [答案与解析]

  1. B。本题考查句子语意理解。划线的句子意思为:世界上并不是每一个人都需要同样大的空间。所给的四个选项中,只有选项B与划线句子的意思一致。

  2. B。本题属于概括文章主旨大意题。

  3. C。本题也属于概括文章主旨大意题。本文主要讲述了国际红十字会的起源和作用。

  4. B。根据本文第一句话:The Red Cross is an international organization which cares for people who are in need of help.由此可猜测出该划线单词的意思是"帮助"。





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