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高考英语阅读理解考点聚焦及例题讲解

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-31 19:24:25
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一、考点聚焦
 1
、题型特点
阅读是理解和吸收书面信息的能力。《中学英语教学大纲》规定,中学生应侧重培养阅读理解能力。
阅读材料的选取原则为:
1)阅读量不少于1000个单词。近三年超过2000字篇数为5篇,读速要求为44.244.646.3wpm
2)题材多样化,包括科普、社会、文化、政治、史地、经济、新闻报道乃至广告说明。www.51jjcn.cn/xxff/7469.html
3)体裁避免单一化,包括记叙文、说明文、应用文等。
2
、试题要求
1)掌握所读材料的主旨和大意,以及用以说明主旨和大意的事实和细节。
2)既理解具体的事实,也理解抽象的概念。
3)既理解字面意思,也理解深层含义,包括作者的态度、意图等。
4)既理解某句、某段的意义也理解全篇的逻辑关系,并据此进行推理和判断。
5)能根据材料所提供的信息,结合中学生应有的常识正确判断生词的含义。
3
、基本能力
1)能迅速看准每句的结构,抓住主句的主语、谓语、宾语。
2)有一定的词汇量和辨词能力。
3)能灵活运用所学语法知识,根据句中的某个词迅速断定真假、语态和时态等。
4)对英美文化背景知识有一定了解。
5)有良好的思维能力,能边看边加工所得到的信息,从而作出正确分析、判断和综合。
6)有平时大量阅读作基础,有一定的语感和相当的阅读速度。

二、应试技巧点拨
1
、四个步骤
1)速读短文,了解短文的主旨大意,辨别文体,掌握结构。
2)看题。了解考查内容,带着问题读材料,寻找答案。
3)复读。对所选答案有针对性地寻找支撑论点的关键信息。
4)核查。注意各题的答案应逻辑一致,不能自相矛盾。尽可能找到(从文中)根据,确保正确无误。
2
、四个善于
1)关于审题,找出文中依据。
2)善于寻找线索。
3)善于抓主题句,解决概括题。
4)善于筛选、比较、衡量、综合文章的有用信息。
3
、三个避免
1)只见树木不见林。
2)难题耗时太多。
3)阅读方式不当。

三、精典范例
   
NMET  2001
Shanghai: Car rentals
(出租)are becoming more and more popular as an inexpensive way of taking to the roads. Business people, foreigners and families alike are making good use of the growing industry.

The first car rental firm opened in Shanghai in 1992 and now 12 car rental players are in the game, with more than 11,500 cars in their books.

The largest playerShanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choicesdeluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are big favorite.

Firms can attract enough customers for 70 percent of their cars every month. This figure shoots up during holiday seasons like National Day, Labor Day and New Year’s Day, with some recording 100 percent rental.

The major market force rests in the growing population of white-collar employees(白领雇员),who can afford the new service, said Zhuang Yu, marketing manager of Shanghai Angel car Rental Co.
(   )1. The words "deluxe sedans","minivans"and "station wagons"used in the text refer to ___________.
A.cars in the making           B.car rental firms
C.cars for rent                D.car makers
(   )2. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
A. 70% of the cars can be rented out on holiday.
B. 70% of the customers are while-collar employees.
C. More firms are open for service during holiday seasons.
D. Some firms rent out all their cars during holiday seasons.
(   )3. Shanghai’s car rental industry is growing so fast mainly due to ___________.
A. better cars supplied by producers.
B. fast service offered by car rental firms.
C. the increasing number of white-collar emplioyees.
D. people’s growing interest in travelling during holidays.
解析:

1.C
。上文提到:"Shanghai Bashi旅游车租赁中心"提供了广泛丰富的选择,可判断选择的内容为可供租赁的车型。故选C
2.D
。文中提到的数据70%"每月汽车租出量",故AB都不正确。"This figure shoots up during holiday seasons , with some recording 100 percent rental"判断出D项陈述正确的,即"一些公司在节假日里能够把汽车全部租出去。"
3.C
。文章最后一段引用"汽车租赁中心市场经理"Zhuang Yu)的话解释了上海汽车租赁行车迅猛发展的原因根源于"the growing population of white-collar employees"。故选C

2:(2004年全国卷II
Rome had the Forum. London has Speaker’s Corner. Now always
on  the-go New Yorkers have Liz and Bill.

Liz and Bill, two college graduates in their early 20s, have spent a whole year trying to have thousands of people talk to them in subway stations and on busy street corners. Just talk.

Using a 2-foot-tall sign that says,"Talk to Me."they attract conversatio- nalists, who one evening included a mental patient, and men in business suits.

They don’t collect money. They don’t push religion(宗教). So what’s the point?

"To see what happens, said Liz."We simply enjoy life with open communication(交流)."
Shortly after the September 11,2001 attacks, they decided to walk from New York City to Washington, a 270-mile trip. They found they loved talking to people along the way and wanted to continue talking with strangers after their return.

"It started as a crazy idea,"Liz said."We were so curious about all the strangers walking by with their life stories. People will talk to us about anything: their jobs, their clothes, their childhood experiences, anything."

Denise wanted to talk about an exam she was about to take. She had stopped by for the second time in two days, to let the two listeners know how it went.

Marcia had lost her husband to a serious disease."That was very heavy on my mind,"Marcia said."To be able to talk about it to total strangers was very good,"she explained.

To celebrate a year of talking, the two held a get-together in a city park for all the people they had met over the past year. A few hundred people showed up, as well as some television cameramen and reporters.

They may plan more parties or try to attract more people to join their informal talks. Some publishers have expressed interest in a book, something they say they’ll consider.
1. What did Liz and Bill start doing after September 2001?
A. Chatting with people.           B. Setting up street signs
C. Telling stories to strangers       D. Organizing a speaker’s corner
2. What they have been doing can be described as         .
A. pointless       B. normal      C. crazy        D. successful
3. Why are Denise and Marcia mentioned in the text?
A. They knew Liz and Bill very well.
B. They happened to meet the writer of the text.
C. They organized the get-together in the city park.
D. They are examples of those who talked to Liz and Bill.
4. What will Liz and Bill do in the future?
A. Go in for publishing.            B. Do more television programs.
C. Continue what they are doing.    D. Spend more time reading books.
5. How do they like they idea of writing a book?
A. They have decided to wait a year or two
B. They will think about it carefully
C. They agreed immediately    
D. They find it hard to do that
解析:
1.A
。本篇讲述了两个大学毕业生与陌生人交谈,倾听人们向他们倾述的互惠的活动。文章从联想开始,简介Liz and Bill(这是两个人的名字,又是交谈与倾听活动的名称)做什么,怎样开始的,效果如何,未来打算等,其中等六段和第七段是插叙(从shortly after…到…experiences, anything.),讲述的就是两个年轻人怎样开始这一活动的。故选A项;开始与人聊天。
2.D
Liz and Bill活动很成功。从倒数第二段可知:为庆祝该活动一周所举办的聚会,有许多人参加,记者和摄影师都来了,说明很成功。
3.D
LizBill同许多人谈生活,倾听过许多人跟他们谈心,DeniseMarcia是其中的两人。提到他们来做例子。
4.C
。最后一段的前一句说明他们还想吸引更多的人来加入这一活动,与他们聊天。故选C
5.B
。本题问LizBill怎么看待写本书这回事,全篇最后一句可知,但本句结构较复杂。something是代词,是a book的同位语,"they’ll consider"是定语从句,"they say"起到插入语的作用。全句可译为:有些出版商表达了给LizBill 出本书的兴趣,LizBill说他们会考虑这件事。consider一词可解释为think about carefully"something"指出书写书。故选B

3
My first reaction was annoyance. It was Friday afternoon, and I was within an hour of finishing my work for the week. As I was leaving, a nurse brought me one more patient message. The statement read: "Mrs.Jones called to say that she has had blurred vision
(视觉模糊)ever since her medical test this morning."I smiled. Suddenly our tests were causing eye problems.

This week my patients had questioned everything. My patient with high blood pressure had stopped coming to her treatment on the advice of an Internet chat room. A woman who had a mental problem was substituting(用……代替)St . John’s word for her medication. Now Mrs. Jones was imagining problems. I rolled my eyes.

My second reaction was worry. As I looked through her record, I tried to figure out why she would have blurred vision, but nothing in her record explained the new problem. She’s probably just anxious, I thought. Still, she wouldn’t have called if she had been all right. I picked up the phone.

What I next felt can only be described as delight. Before I made the call, the nurse ran in: Mrs. Jones called. Her vision is fine. Turns out she picked up the wrong glasses when she left the office. The X-raytechnician has been having the same problem. I let out a laugh. Mrs. Jones had been right. Her vision had been blurred. Now we know why.

Finally I felt shame. I came to realize what Mrs. Jones had taught me. I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. Instead, my medical training had clouded mine. Now I me for my help. They pay me to listen, diagnose(诊断),treat and talk. That suggests trust; I must remember that, and trust them too.

1.The writer smiled while reading the patient message because he knew    .
 A. Mrs. Jones would ask for more tests 
B. the patient was being unreasonable
C. the nurse was joking with him
D. Mrs. Jones would call him
2. What had caused Mrs . Jones’ eye problem?
A. Wrong glasses            B. Medical checkup.
C. Her own imagination       D. Chatting on the Internet
3.The underlined words"clouded her judgment"in the last paragraph probably mean      .
A. made her less trustful toward the doctor
B. put her in control of her own feelings
C. made her less able to think clearly
D. put her in a dangerous situation
解析:
1.B
。本篇讲一个医生要结束一周的工作时几分钟内的心理历程。一周来,病人们不断怀疑或不信任自己,其中一个病人Mrs.Jones也来电话说上午看完病后眼睛看不清东西,医生先是烦躁,进而担心焦虑是否真的有问题或病人只是在想像,再而是高兴——Mrs.Jones只是戴错了眼镜,自己的诊断治疗没问题。最后是惭愧,病人还是信任自己的,自己也必须信任病人。文章第二段活用了许多过去完成时,说明这些事先发生,许多病人开始没道理地怀疑自己,现在又轮到Mrs.Jones。所以医生知道这位病人有些没理性。
2.A
。第四段的前几句说明了Mrs.Jones视力正常,(下班)离开办公室时拿错了眼镜。
3.C
。画线部分中cloud作动词用,是用云挡住的意思,整体画线部分应是"影响了她的判断力,使她不能正常思考",本题可用代入法解决。

4
It’s not the flashiest car in the world. Not even close. But the 1971 Volkswagen named Helios can do something most cars can’t : run on solar energy
energy from the sun’s light and head!
Joshua Bechtold, 14,and the other students at the Riverside School in Lyndonville, Vermont, worked They named their car after Helios, the sun god in Greek mythology
(神话)。

The 4-year-old Tour de Sol encourages the use of "green",or environmen- tally friendly, cars to help reduce pollution and save enengy. It’s not a race. Cars are judged on fuel efficiency
(耗油量)rather than speed. In the week-long event, 44 cars took the 350-mile tour from Waterbury, Connecticut, to Lake George, New York. Of the 23 student cars, Helios was the only one built by middle school students.

A teacher drove Helios, but the children talked with people wherever they stopped along the road."That was my favorite part,"says Anna Browne,15."We explained how the car runs."

Due in part to old, inefficient batteries(电池),Helios finished fourthout of fourin its kind, the sun-powered class."We were there for the fun of it,"Anna says,"We’re proud of Helios,"says Ariel Gleicher, 14."It’s a car that’s good for the environment."

1. What is special about the car Helios in the text?
A. It was built by middle school students
B. It has an attractive design
C. It was made in 1971
D. It won the fourth prize
2. How many sun-powered cars took part in the race?
A. 1         B. 4       C. 23        D. 44
3. What would be the best title for the text?
A. The Making of Helios        
B. 1999 American Tour de Sol
C. Sun-powered Gars on the Road 
D. Use of Green Cars in Connecticut
  4. The students felt proud of Helios because          .
    A. it could run as far as 350 miles  
B. it was favored by many children
C. it had high-quality batteries
D. it was driven by clean energy
解析:
1.A
。从第一段"run on solar energy"和第二段"Joshua Bechtold,14, and the other studentsworked many months to get Helois ready."可知本车利用太阳能,并且由学生制做。
2.B
。从最后一段"Helois finished fourth-out of four-in its kind, the sun-powered class"可知,四辆同类车参赛,Helois得第四名。
3.C
。全文讲述Helois这类太阳能车。本文不止讲Helois的制作,排除A。本文讲Helois参赛前后的事,不以赛事为主,排除B。环保汽车的使用不止在Connectinut, 排除D
4.D
。学生们对此车感到自豪是因为该车环保,而非车速或小孩子喜欢,且它的电池旧而效率低,排除其他各项。

5
The other day, my friend Jane was invited to a 40th birthday party. The time printed on the invitation was 7:30 pm. Jane went off with her husband, expecting a merry evening of wine, food, and song.

By 9:45,everybody was having great fun, but no food had appeared. Jane and David were restless. Other guests began whispering that they, too, were starving. But no one wanted to leave, just in case some food was about to appear. By 11:00, there was still no food, and everyone was completely off their heads. Jane and David left hungry and angry.

Their experience suggests that the words on the printed invitations need to be made clearer. Everyone reads and understands the invitations differently. Most of us would agree that 6:308:30pm means drinks only, go out to dinner afterwards; 8:00pm or 8:30pm means possible dinner, but 9:30pm and any time thereafter means no food, eat beforehand, roll up late.

But this is not always the case. If asked to a students’ party at 6:30pm, it is normal for guests not to appear before midnight, if at all, and no one cares. Being the first to arrivelooking eageris social death. When my mother asked to a party for 6:30, she likes to be there, if not on time, then no later than seven. My age group (late thirties)falls somewhere between the two, but because we still think we’re young. We’re probably closer to student-time than grown-up time.

The accepted custom at present is confusing(混乱的),sometimes annoying, and it often means you may go home hungry, but it does lend every part that precious element(成分)of surprise.
1. The underlined words"off their heads"probably mean        .
A. tired       B. crazy      C. curious      D. hopeless
2. Jane and David’s story is used to show that          .
A. party-goers usually get hungry at parties
B. party invitations can be confusing
C. people should ask for food at parties
D. birthday parties for middle-aged people are dull
3. For some young people, arriving on time for a students’ party will probably be considered         .
A. very difficult             B. particularly thoughtful
C. friendly and polite         D. socially unacceptable
4. According to the writer, people in their late thirties        .
A. are likely to arrive late for a party
B. care little about the party time
C. haven’t really grown up yet
D. like surprises at parties
5. What is the general idea of the text?         .
A. It’s safe to arrive late just when food is served
B. It’s wise to eat something before going to a party
C. It’s important to follow social rules of party-going
D. It’s necessary to read invitations carefully
解析:

1.B
。参加晚会的人没吃晚饭,到晚11点,人们饿疯了。
2.B
。开头的故事做为例子,说明邀请信函令人迷茫,人们无法把握该如何去做。
3.D
。第四段前几句说明,年轻的学生赴晚会迟到很正常。急切地第一个赶到的人太少见了。
4.A
。第四段最后提及三十多岁的人参加晚会的时间接近学生的时间,故可能迟到。
5.C
。全文可知,不同年龄段的人到达晚会的时间不同,对晚会时间理解不同,不遵从社会习惯,便会出现饿肚子等现象。所以,按社会习俗参加晚会极为重要。

6
Cannes will rock to the sound of a cancan dance this year when Moulin Rouge by the Australian director Baz Luhrmann opens the French film festival

(电影节)in May. The musical stars Nicole Kidman as a singer, and John Leguizamo as the artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautree. It will be competing for the palme d’Or, the festival’s top prize. The festival runs to May 21.

The American actor Tommy Lee Jones, 54, has married his longtime girlfriend, Dawn Maria Laurel, 36, in a private wedding in San Antonio."It wasn’t a big to-do,"said Fred Biery, a U.S. District Judge who performed the service. He refused to discuss things further."These are very private people,"he said.
Loretta Lynn is being treated for a very bad cold in Tennessee and will miss several appearances. The country singer, 65, was admitted to a hospital near her home in Hurricane Mills."She is in good condition, but the doctors are watching her closely,"a spokeswoman said.

The French-Algerian singer Enrico Macias was named a United Nations peace messenger. Enrico joins eight other people who act as goodwill envoys(使者)for the United Nations, among them are the writer Elie Wiesel and the basketball player Magie Johnson.
1. We can learn from the text that Henri de Toulouse-Lantree is        .
A. a figure in a film              B. a dancer in a show
C. a country singer               D. a prize winner
2. We know from the text that          .
A. Moulin Rouge won the top prize in a film festival
B. Loretta Lynn is under the doctor’s care
C. eight people serve as the UN goodwill enjoys
D. Fred Biery was Tommy Lee Jones’ assistant
3. This text most probably appears in         .
A. a book on film stars             B. a film review in a magazine
C. a newspaper                   D. a notice
解析:

1.A
。第一段"and John Leguizamo as the artist Hentti de You-louse Lautree."可知,as前省略了will act, as前的人是一个演员,其后的人是电影中的角色。
2.B
。第四段"She (Loretta Lynn)is in good condition, but the doctors are watching her closely"可知答案。Moulin Rough(一部影片)即将参加电影节,尚未获奖,排除AEnrico Macias同其他八人一道,共九人,排除CFred Biery是一个法官,故排除D
3.C
。全文四小段文章均是关于影视娱乐圈的事,应该是从报纸的休闲娱乐栏目中选取的文章。





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