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高考英语阅读理解 细节理解题解题技巧

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-29 19:24:25
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一、题型介绍:
过去在阅读理解题中占很大比例。细节题要求考生具备快速寻找信息的能力,采用针对性方法进行阅读。多数情况下,作者不会明确地呈现一个事实,读者需根据已有的信息进行处理,读出言外之意。还要特别注意文章的时间顺序、故事发生的地点、情节的发展、和人物之间的关系。
考查文章细节理解的测试题
① This article is particularly written for ___.?
  ② When the writer says … he really means ___.?
  ③ The author’s attitude to… is that ___.?www.51jjcn.cn/xxff/7467.html
  ④ What kind of atmosphere does the writer want to create in this passage??
  ⑤ The writer regards… as ___.?
  ⑥ The writer’s purpose in writing this story is ___.
 
二、细节题具体方法与步骤:
①排除干扰项 ,突出主题。事实细节题的设计干扰项一般都是某一细节的错误叙述与论断,可先排除干扰项。作为命题内容的细节一般总是短文的要点活主要论据。因此正确的选项往往与短文的主题密切相关。
② 按文章的体裁,作者写作的组织模式及有关的信息词,如for example,first,second…等预测应该到何处寻找自己所需要的事实。
③ 将自己精力放在寻找你所需要的细节上,快速通篇跳读,眼睛自左至右,自上而下呈Z形扫视,直到找到细节出处,待找到含细节句子时,放慢速度,仔细核对比较内容,直至找到答案。
④注意识别指代词语。为避免重复,文章中对多次提及的事物或现象会使用不同的词语,如同义词、近义词、代词等。
 
三、考题探究
Most people think of racing when they see greyhounds(灰狗) and believe they need lots of exercise. They can actually be quite lazy! Greyhounds are good at fast races but not long-distance running. They do need regular exercise but they like to run for a short burst and then get back on the bed or a comfortable seat. Another misunderstanding is that greyhounds must be aggressive(好斗的) because they are big in size. In fact greyhounds love people and are gentle with children.
Greyhounds can live for 12-14 years but usually only race for two or three years, and after that they make great pets. They don’t need a lot of space, don’t make a lot of noise, and don’t eat a lot for their size.
Normally, greyhounds can be as tall as 90 cm. There is, however, a small-sized greyhound, which stands only 33 cm. Greyhounds come in a variety of colors. Grey and yellowish-brown are the most common. Others include black, white, blue, red and brown or a mix of these.
Greyhounds have smooth body coats, low body fat and are very healthy. Because they’re slim(苗条的)they don’t have the leg problems like other dogs the same height. But they do feel the cold.  Especially since they would much rather be at home in bed thanwalking around outside.
1  Why does the author say that greyhounds make great pets?
A. They are big in size.
B. They live a very long life.
C. They can run races for some time.
D. They are quiet and easy to look after.
2 . If you keep a pet greyhound, it is important          .
A. to keep it slim
B. to keep it warm
C. to take special care of its legs
D. to take it to animal doctors regularly
学海导航
1 D 从题目可以看出该题目是考查对文章细节理解的题目。结合语境,注意上下文的关系,注意查找关键信息。由文章的第二段的内容来看,文章用了三个具有否定意义的排比句They don’t need a lot of space, don’t make a lot of noise, and don’t eat a lot for their size.,分析了灰狗的习性和特点,尤其是在点明了they make great pets之后,又对其原因进行了分析,此时我们就可以根据文章的讲解来推断题目。故该题目的关键是对文章第二段的内容进行分析,归纳,然后得出结论。
2 B 由题目可知该题应该是个对文章细节的推断题。由该题考查的内容,我们可以讲注意力放在文章的最后一段。最后一段中提到灰狗没有其他类型狗的腿的毛病,因此 C项错误。文章特别提到they do feel the cold.,说明他们怕冷,因此就需要保暖了。故B项是正确答案。
 
四、实例演练
Some children are natural-born bosses. They have a strong need to make decisions, manage their environment, and lead rather than follow. Stephen Jackson, a Year One student, “operates under the theory of what’s mine is mine and what’s yours is mine,” says his mother. “The other day I bought two new Star Wars light sabers(剑)。 Later, I saw Stephen with the two new ones while his brother was using the beat-up ones.”
   “Examine the extended family, and you’ll probably find a bossy grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin in every generation. It’s an inheritable trait,” says Russell Barkley, a professor at the Medical University of South Carolina. Other children who may not be particularly bossy can gradually gain dominance(支配地位) when they sense their parents are weak, hesitant, or in disagreement with each other.
   Whether it’s inborn nature or developed character at work, too much control in the hands at the young isn’t healthy for children or the family, Fear is at the root of a lot of bossy behavior, says family psychologist John Taylor. Children, he says in his book From Defiance to Cooperation, “have secret feelings of weakness” and “a desire to feel safe.” It’s the parents’ role to provide that protection.
   When a “boss child” doesn’t learn limits at home, the stage is set for a host of troubles outside the family. The overly willful and unbending child may have trouble obeying teachers or coaches, for example, or trouble keeping friends. It can be pretty lonely as thetop dog if no one likes your bossy ways.
   “I see more and more parents giving up their power,” says Barkley, who has studied bossy behavior for more than 30 years. “They bend too far because they don’t want to be as strict as their own parents were. But they also feel less confident about their parenting skills. Their kids, in turn, feel more anxious.”
1、 Bossy children like Stephen Jackson.
A. make good decisions
B. show self-centeredness
C. lack care from others
D. have little sense of fear
【点津】 B 该题目主要是对文章的细节的考查,我们在读完题目后,我们可以将注意力放在第一段中的I saw Stephen with the two new ones while his brother was using the beat-up ones.”在认真分析后我们可知Stephen 不知道对别人关心、照顾,而是以自我为中心。故B 项是正确答案。
五、经验总结:
通过对上面内容的讲解和自己练习我们可以做出一下的总结:
1 定位能力很重要,要通过不断的做练习来进行有意识的培养。
2 细节理解题通常是定位部分的变体或者是重复,即意思相同但表达的方式会有所变化。
3 切忌通过自己对某类知识的主观了解做出凭空想象的判断,每一道题目的选择都离不开对原文的理解和把握,答题时要力求紧扣文章中心来寻找解题的线索。





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