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高考英语阅读理解 推理判断题解题技巧

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-27 19:24:25
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一、题型介绍:
推理判断题属于主观题,是层次较高的题目。它包括判断和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了作出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。该题要求在理解表面文字的基础上,作出判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含的意思和深层的意思,也就是通过文章中的文字信息,上下逻辑关系及事物的发展变化等已知的信息,推断出作者没有直接表达的态度和观点。
常见的推理判断题的设问方式:
推测作者写作目的或意图的设题形式有:
  1) The purpose in writing this text is to __________.
  2) The author writes this passage to __________. www.51jjcn.cn/xxff/7465.html
  3) The author in this passage intends to __________.
推测文章的观点或结论的设题形式有:
  1) It can be inferred from the passage that __________.                             
  2) What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?
  3) From the passage we can conclude that __________.
推断文章出处的设题形式有:
  1)The passage is most likely to be taken from_________.
  2)Where would this passage most probably appear?
  3)The passage is most likely a part of_________.
是非判断题的设题方式:1.which of the following is (not)true or false ?
2.All of the following statements are wrong except _____
3.All of the following statements are right/true except _____.
4.Which of the following is not mentioned in the passage /text?
 逻辑排序题的设题方式:
Which of the following describes one’s logic in doing sth ?
Which of the following shows the correct order of what happened to …?
Choose the right order of the following events in …
二、推理判断题的解题方法 :
推理判断题不仅要求考生读懂文章中的每个句子的意思还要推理它们之间的关系,结合自己的生活常识和经验,再通过逻辑推理和判断,理解文章的言外之意,从而揭示文章的深层涵义。任何一篇文章都有其特定的写作目的,读者应当知道如何去做或按照某种方式传递思考问题。推理判断题的答案不可能在文章中直接找到,因此推理时我们务必要忠于原文,在文章中寻找并确定可推论的依据,即:已知部分-推论的前提,从中推测出未知部分-推理的结论,切忌妄加评论,把自己的观点当成作者的观点。
三、考题探究
 (2006江苏)The first reality TV show in the world was called Expedition Robinson and it was shown in Sweden in 1997. Half the population of the country watched the final event and a new kind of TV program was born. Two years later in Holland, the first series of Big Brother was filmed. Again, it was a great success and the final program was watched by 15 million people. Now more than 20 countries around the world have Big Brother or Expedition Robinson on their TV screens. The ordinary people who take part in the programs are known by millions of people
in their own countries and reality TV has become big, big business.
For the TV producers, reality TV is a dream come true because many of the programs cost nothing to make. At some point, the television viewers (观众) are asked to telephone the program to vote or to apply to take part in the show. It is the cost of these telephone calls that pays for the shows. One of the most popular shows is Pop Idol. In the show, a group of attractive young people are made into pop stars. TV viewers vote for their favorite person on the show. The winner makes a record and millions of copies of the record are sold. His or her pictures are published on the covers of magazines or on the front pages of newspapers, and then, they are quickly forgotten.
But not everyone is happy about reality TV. In Portugal two TV channels got into trouble because they showed too much of the personal lives of the people in the shows. In France, reality TV is called " rubbish TV" and the TV studios of Big Brother were attacked three times in one week. In Greece, Big Brother was described as "against human rights and civilization".
  It can be concluded from the passage that __________.
A. everyone is happy about reality TV
B. reality TV will do well in many countries
C. all the people in Europe are in favor of reality TV
D. reality TV will not be broadcast in any countries学海导航 :B  通读全文,本文主要讲的是reality TV,根据第一段的中间Now more than 20 countries around the world have Big Brother or Expedition Robinson on their TV screens,可知真人秀在20多个国家流行。故答案为B。该题也可以用排除法,AC两项很容易排除,可能有些学生会选D,其实every ,all,not 连用才表示部分否定,而any不是。D表示现实剧不会在任何一个国家播放,当然是不对的。
四、实例演练
Are British people Europeans? This may seem a strange question to Africans and Asians,who tend to think of all white people as Europeans.But the British,when they are in Britain,do not regard themselves as Europeans.The Europeans,to them,are those rather excitable foreigners from the other side of the English Channel,who have never learnt how to speak English.Europe is known as “the Continent”,a place full of interest for British tourists,but also the source of almost a11 the wars in which Britain has ever been involved.Thus although geographically speaking Britain is a part of Europe,the fact that it is a separate island has made its people feel very,very insular (孤立的).They feel,and in many ways are,different from the rest of Europe,and they sometimes annoy continental nations by failing to support them,or even to understand them,in time of need.
Where did British people come from? This is an extraordinary interesting question,since they are a mixture of many different races,and all these races invaded (侵略) Britain at different times from Europe.Nobody knows very much about Britain before the Romans came during the first century B.C., but there had been at least three invasions before that.The first of these was by a dark-haired Mediterranean race called the Iberians.Theother two were by Celtic tribes:first the Gaels,whose descendants are the modern Scots and Irish,some of whom still speak the Gaelic language;and second the Britons,who gave their name to the whole island of Britain.These were the people whom the Romans conquered.The Romans gave the Britons a good deal of their civilization,but they never settled in Britain in very large numbers,so the British race survived until the overthrow of the Roman Empire by the “barbarians”,i.e.the numerous Germanic tribes which overran the whole of Western Europe.
57.It can be known from the passage that       .
A.most people think white people are Europeans
B.there are many Africans and Asians living in Europe
C.white men are Europeans in the eyes of Africans and Asians
D.the British people think of themselves as Europeans
 
【点津】 C 该题主要考查对第一段第二句This may seem a strange question to Africans and Asians,who tend to think of all white people as Europeans说明在非洲人和亚洲人都认为所有的白人都是欧洲人。
五、经验总结:
1 .确定作者的观点及写作理由。
2.分析材料提供的全部事实。
3 .注意词的词典义和联想义,将材料中已知的事实与材料中没有表达的概念联系在一起。
4 .深入理解已知的事实的潜在的信息。





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