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英语高考阅读理解细节题解题技巧

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-23 19:24:25
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综观近几年的高考英语阅读题,尽管推断题呈不断上升的趋势,但细节仍然占有较大比例,而且已由过去简单的对号入座直接答题转向通过语句的同义或反义转换来考查同学们对英语语言的理解能力,因此难度比往年有所增加。本文拟就细节题的不同类型谈谈其解题技巧。
  
  一、语义转换题——跳读查找法
  
  这是做事实细节题最基本也是最常用的方法。在通常情况下,细节题主要考查考生对某句话或某几句话的理解,同学们若能根据题干内容从原文中找到相关的句子,然后进行比较和分析,便可确定最佳答案。
  运用跳读查找法时,同学们要特别注意试题(包括选项)与原文之间的适当变换。根据近几年的考题情况来看,现在很少有直接用原文中的句子进行考查和测试的,而通常要进行一定的处理。而这种“处理”主要就是指进行语义转换,其中包括同义变换、概念解析、归纳事实等。请看下面的例子(重庆高考英语试题):www.51jjcn.cn/xxff/7461.html
  “My kids really understand solar and earth-heat energy,” says a second-grade teacher in Saugus,California.“Some of them are building solar collectors for their energy course.” These young scientists are part of City Building Educational Program(CBEP),a particular program for kindergarten through twelfth grade that uses the stages of city planning to teach basic reading,writing and math skills,and more.
  The children don’t just plan any city. They map and analyze(分析) the housing,energy,and transportation requirements of their own district and foretell its needs in 100 years. With the aid of an architect(建筑师) who visits the classroom once a week,they invent new ways to meet these needs and build models of their creations.“Designing buildings of the future gives children a lot of freedom,”says the teacher who developed this program.“They are able to use their own rich imagination and inventions without fear of blame,because there are no wrong answers in a future context. In fact,as the class enters the final model-building stage of the program,an elected ‘official’ and ‘planning group’ make all the design decisions for the model city,and the teacher steps back and becomes an adviser.”
  CBEP is a set of activities,games and imitations that teach the basic steps necessary for problem-solving:observing,analyzing,working out possible answers,and judging them based on the children’s own standards.
  1. An architect pays a weekly visit to the classroom________ .
  A. to find out kids’ creative ideas B. to discuss with the teacher
  C. to give children lecturesD. to help kids with their program
  2. Who is the designer of the program?
  A. An official.B. An architect.C. A teacher.D. A scientist.
  
  【解题分析】
  1.选 D。根据第2段中的 With the aid of an architect who visits the classroom once a week,they invent new ways to meet these needs and build models of their creations 可知答案为 D。句中的 aid 意为“帮助”,与 help 同义。
  2.选 C。根据第2段中的 ... the teacher who developed this program 可知答案选 C。develop 与 design 在此大致同义。

二、生活应用题——常识理解法
  
  生活应用题要求考生在读懂文章的基础上结合一定的生活常识进行判断。不过,有趣的是,高考有时会出现一些“低级”常识判断题,即无需看懂文章,也可选出最佳答案。请看一个实例(全国卷高考英语试题):
  A child’s birthday party doesn’t have to be a hassle;it can be a basket of fun,according to Beth Anaclerio,an Evaston mother of two,ages 4 and 18 months.
  “Having a party at home usually requires a lot of running around on the part of the parents,and often the birthday boy or girl gets lost in wild excitement. But it really doesn’t have to be that way,”said Anaclerio. Last summer,Anaclerio and her friend Jill Carlisle,a Northbrook mother of a 2-year-old,founded a home party-planning business called“A Party in a Basket”. Their goal is to help parents and children share in the fun part of party planning,like choosing the subject or making a cake,while they take care of everything. Drawing on their experiences as mothers,they have created(制作) 10 ready-to-use,home party packages. Everything a family needs to plan a party,except the cake and ice cream,is delivered to the home in a large basket.
  “Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10,” Anaclerio said,“And they’re very interactive(互动) and creative in that they build a sense of drama based on a subject. For example,at the Soda Shoppe party the guests become waiters and waitresses and build wonderful ice cream creations.”
  The standard $ 200 package for eight children includes a basket filled with invitations,gifts,games and prizes,paper goods,a party planner and the like. For more information,call Anaclerio at 708-864-6584 or Carlisle at 708-205-9141.
  1.Which of the following is most likely to be a party planner?
   A. B. C.D.
  
  【解题分析】
  先看四个选项(图形)所表示的意思:选项 A 是一个记事本,左边写着 Date,Things to do ...,右边写着 People to invite...; 选项 B 是一份礼品;选项 C 是一张卡片,上面写着 Happy Birthday;选项 D 是一份菜单,上面写着 Potato soup 3.00...等。聪明的考生,只要注意到题干中的 a party planner,便可排除 B、C 选项,因为根据常识,它们显然不是 planner(计划书)。至于 A、D 两项到底选哪项呢?两项都有点像 planner,但仔细比较一下便可知 A 最佳。a party planner 的意思是“晚会计划书”,根据常识,要计划一场晚会,当然首先要明确日期(date),还要确定做些什么事(things to do)以及邀请什么人(people to invite)等;而选项D只是一份菜单,它标明的只是一些菜的价格,显然与 a party planner 不符。



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