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高考英语阅读理主旨大意题解题技巧

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-18 19:24:25
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主旨大意题解题技巧

  主旨大意题在高考阅读理解中出现的频率很高,因为这类题主要考查考生能否通过理解、分析全文,区分主要信息和次要信息,进而总结归纳文章或段落的大意。测试点主要体现在对文章的主题、目的、中心思想的把握以及标题的选择。

  这类题型常见的提问方式有:

  What’s the main idea of the passage?

  What does the passage mainly discuss?

  The topic of Paragraph … is ….

  Which of the following best states the theme of the passage?

  A good/suitable title for this passage would be ….

  我们知道:文章的主旨是通过段落来表达的,而段落的大意主要由主题句来体现,所以段落的主题句是构成文章中心思想的有机组成部分。因此,识别各段落的主题句并由此归纳出文章的中心思想是解答该类题的关键。由于文章内容和体裁的不同,作者的写作手法也不尽相同,主题句在段落中出现的位置也不固定。一般说来,采用归纳法的段落,细节表述在前,归纳概括在后,主题句在段尾;采用演绎法的段落,先提出观点,后演绎例证,由一般到特殊,主题句出现在段首;若作者采用由“特殊 — 一般 — 特殊”的方式,主题句可能出现在段落的中间。有时,作者没有写出明显的主题句,我们要学会根据段落的内容去概括出主题句,进而归纳出文章的主题。

  做这类题时常用略读法。快速阅读文章找出各个段落的主题句。把各个段落的主题句联系起来着眼于全文结构安排,了解文章的重心,就能概括出文章的中心。文章的标题是中心思想最精炼的表达形式,选择的标题意义范围要能涵盖全文,不能太大也不能太小。命题者在出这类题时,常常利用生活常识编造干扰项,把文中的细节当主旨,利用局部信息编造干扰项,编制超出文章范围的标题或不能涵盖文章中心意义的标题来考查考生的理解程度,考生要特别留意。对选择标题类题,若遇到拿不太准的情况时,可以自己思考一下:“如果是我写这个题目,我会怎样写?”。

  看看下面两个例题:

  (05 广东卷 B 篇)

  Being considered a leader in our society is indeed of high praise.Leadership means power,

  commands respect and, most important, encourages achievement.Unlike vitamin C, leadership

  skills can’t be easily swallowed down.They must be carefully cultivated.

  Different from popular belief, most good leaders are made, not born.They learn their skills in their everyday lives.But which do they develop? How do they (and how can you) get others to follow?

  Always give credit.Many leaders note that the most efficient way to get a good performance

  from others is to treat them like heroes.Giving public credit to someone who has earned it is the best leadership technique in the world.It is also an act of generosity (慷慨) that’s never forgotten.

  Giving credit is more effective than even the most constructive criticism (批评) , which often

  hurts rather than helps.Kenneth Blanchard, the author of The One-Minute Manager, agrees.

  "Catch people doing something right!" he says.Then tell everyone about it.

  Take informed risks." The best leaders know that taking a risk is not a thoughtless exercise,"

  says management adviser Marilyn Machlowitz, "Sky divers don’t go up in an airplane without checking the parachutes (降落伞) beforehand."

  Because the idea of risk also carries with it the possibility of failure, many of us usually wait

  for others to take charge.But if you want to be a leader, you must learn to fail - and not die a

  thousand deaths.Pick yourself up and start all over again.

  Encourage enthusiasm (热情)."When people understand the importance of work, they lend

  their mental strengths," says Lee Ducat.But when they get excited about the work, all their energy gets poured into the job.That’s a great force! Is this the best way to create excitement? Be enthusiastic yourself. You will be followed by everyone.

  63.Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

  A.Leadership Is of Skills and Techniques

  B.Leadership Is Very Important

  C.Not Many Can Be Leaders

  D.How to Be a Leader

  解析:这一题考查主旨大意,要考生为文章选择标题。文章第一第二两段提出:‘Leadership skills must be carefully cultivated.’‘Most good leaders are made, not born.’(领导能力要精心培养。)接下来文章从三个方面阐述了培养领导能力的方法:Always give credit/ Take informed risks/ Encourage enthusiasm (热情)。根据各个段落的主题句,结合文章的结构,我们不难归纳出文章的中心:这篇文章讲的是怎样培养领导才能。由此,我们判断选项D 在意义上涵盖了文章的中心,是最好的标题。

  (05 天津卷 A 篇)

  Everyone’s at it , even my neighbors . I thought I might be the only person left in the world who hadn’t done an eBay deal . So, I decided to try my hand at online auction (网上拍卖) . Buying for beginners: Sign up on www.ebay.co.uk . Most items (e. g. tables, computers, and books) ready for auction will come with a picture and a shart description ; others may be marked with “Buy It Now” and have a fixed price . You can buy these right away.

  If the item is being auctioned , you offer the highest price you are prepared to pay and eBay bids (出价) for you . The bid will be increased little by little until it goes beyond your highest bid, then you are emailed and asked if you would like to bid again. Auctions last up to 10 days and when they finish you get an email telling you whether you have won the item.

  How to pay : Sellers decide how they would like to be paid and you need to check this before placing a bid as you might not want to post a cheque or postal orders . The easiest way is through PayPal, an online payment system that takes the money away from your credit card (信用卡).

  Selling made simple: If you plan to sell on eBay, it helps to include a picture of the item . I followed my friends’ advice and put up the items I wanted to sell for a 10-day auction, starting on a Thursday. This way buyers had two weekends to bid.

  The big things in life: It’s easy to post a small item , but furniture is a big part of eBay and this has to be collected or sent by deliverymen . Check the ways of delivery before you bid.

  36.What is the passage mainly about?

  A.How to make payment online.

  B.Ways of making delivery online.

  C.Advantages of an online-auction system.

  D.How to use an online-auction system.

  解析:这是一篇说明文,文章结构清晰明了,第一段介绍注册网址、网上的拍卖品;第二段介绍怎样竞价;第三段介绍怎样付款。把三段的大意联系起来我们就可以概括出文章的中心:网络拍卖系统的使用方法。由此,我们很容易得出答案:D。

  【实战演练练习六】(05 福建卷 C 篇)

  Walk through the Amazon rainforest today and you will find it is steamy, warm, damp and thick. But if you had been around 15,000 years ago, during the last ice age ,would it have been the same? For more than 30 years, scientists have been arguing about how rainforests like the Amazon might have reacted(反应)to the cold, dry climates of the ice ages, but until now, no one has reached a satisfying answer.

  Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tones of CO2 each year; equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year. But how will the Amazon react to future climate change? If it gets drier, will it still survive and continue to draw down CO2? Scientists hope that they will be able to learn in advance how the rainforest will manage in the future by understanding how rainforests reacted to climate change in the past.

  Unfortunately, getting into the Amazon rainforest and collecting information are very difficult. To study past climate, scientists need to look at fossilized pollen, kept in lake muds. Going back to the last ice age means drilling deep down into lake sediments(沉淀物), which requires specialized equipment and heavy machinery. There are very few roads and paths, or places to land helicopters and aeroplanes. Rivers tend to be the easiest way to enter the forest ,but this still leaves vast areas between the rivers completely unsampled(未取样). So far, only a handful of cores have been drilled that go back to the last ice age and none of them provide enough information to prove how the Amazon rainforest reacts to climate change.

  67.The best title for this passage may probably be        .

  A.Studies of the Amazon B.Climates of the Amazon

  C.Secrets of the Rainforests          D.Changes of the Rainforests

  【实战演练练习七】(05 上海卷 D 篇)

  Equipped only with a pair of binoculars(双筒望远镜) and ready to spend long hours waiting in all weathers for a precious glance of a rare bullfinch(红腹灰雀). Britain’s birdwatchers had long been supposed to be lovers of a minority sport. But new figures show birdwatching is fast becoming a popular pastime, with almost three million of us absorbed in our fluttering feathered friends.

  Devoted birdwatchers, those prepared to travel thousands of miles for a sighting of a rare Siberian bird are fast being joined by a new breed of follower whose interest is satiated by watching a few finches(雀科鸣鸟) on a Sunday walk or putting up a bird-box in the back garden.

  “Almost three million UK birdwatchers is certainly possible if you include everyone with only a casual interest.” Stephen Moss said in his newly published book-A Bird in the Bush a Social History of Birdwatching-which records the pursuit from the rich Victorian Englishman’s love of shooting rare birds to the less offensive observational tendencies of birdwatchers today.

  Television wildlife programmes have helped to fuel the new trend. Last summer, BBC 2’s Britain Goes Wild was a surprise success .It pulled in three million viewers and led to bird-houses selling out across the UK as 45,000 people promised to put up a box.

  Birdwatchers’ networking system first came to the attention of the nation in 1989, when a birdwatcher caught sight of the first Vermivora chrysoptera --- a golden–winged songbird from North America-to be seen in Britain. He put a message our on the network service Birdline, and the next day 3,000 birdwatchers proved the fell pull of a truly rare bird as they visited the Tesco car park in Kent, where it had settled. Today, birdwatchers can log on to www.birdline.co.uk or have news of the latest sightings texted to their phones.

  “Multimillion-pound spending on, binoculars, bird food and boxes point to the increasing numbers of birdwatchers,” said David Cromack, the editor of Bird Watching magazine “The number of people involved is so big that they have great potential to influence government decisions affecting the environment.”

  79.The passage mainly tells us about ___________ in UK.

  A.the history of birdwatchig B.a growing passion for birdwatching

  C.the impact of media on birdwatching D.birdwatcing as a popular expensive sport





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