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高考英语不同体裁文章的阅读方法-记叙文

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-15 19:24:25
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不同体裁文章的阅读方法

  不同体裁的文章,作者的写作手法不同,表达的方式千差万别。体裁不同,要求使用的阅读方法也不一样。因此,掌握不同体裁的文章的阅读方法有助于我们提高阅读效率、加深对文章的理解、提高阅读速度。下面分别谈谈记叙文、说明文、议论文、应用文的阅读方法和技巧。

  第一节 记叙文的阅读方法

  记叙文讲述的是发生在当前或过去或将来事情的经过。简而言之,记叙文就是讲故事,包括人物或故事情节。常见的记叙文根据其用途可分为文学记叙文和说明记叙文:文学记叙文以虚构为主,如趣闻逸事、传说、寓言、传奇故事、短篇小说、科幻小说等;说明记叙文以事实为依据,包括历史、传记、新闻报道、日记等。无论哪一种记叙文作者都要交代何人何时何地为什么、怎么样、干了何事等等,这也就是我们常说的“5Ws and 1H”。这是我们在阅读记叙文时要首先了解的,接着按照线索弄清事情的来龙去脉,就能理解整个故事。

  特别值得注意的是:记叙文的叙事顺序有顺叙和倒叙两种,有时候作者为了吸引读者会采用倒叙的方法,即不按照事情发展的先后顺序来叙述,而是从最重要、最能引人入胜的事件开始,然后再回过头来追叙故事的开端和经过。阅读时要学会从事情本身的发展去理解故事情节而不要只看事件在文中出现的先后位置。

  另外,讲故事必定有其目的:或证明某一理论,或阐明某一概念,或赞美某种美德,或谴责某种罪恶等等。我们在阅读时要通过作者的重要细节描写联系故事情节去领会作者的意图,对作者重墨泼就的细节描写要重点关注。

  概括起来一句话:读记叙文的关键是抓情节。 抓住了故事情节,就理解了文章的脉络,其他的就迎刃而解了。

  下面请阅读一篇记叙文,看看你能不能抓住故事的主要情节。

  (05浙江卷 A 篇)

  Compassion is a desire within us to help others.With effort, we can translate compassion into action.An experience last weekend showed me this is true.I work part-time in a supermarket across from a building for the elderly.These old people are our main customers, and it’s not hard to lose patience over their slowness.But last Sunday, one aged gentleman appeared to teach me a valuable lesson.This untidy man walked up to my register(收款机) with a box of biscuits.He said he was out of cash(现金), had just moved into his room, and had nothing in his cupboards.He asked if we could let him have the food on trust.He promised to repay me the next day.

  I couldn’t help staring at him.I wondered what kind of person he had been ten or twenty years before, and what he would be like if luck had gone his way.I had a hurt in my heart for this kind of human soul, all alone in the world.I told him that I was sorry, but store rules didn’t allow me to do so.I felt stupid and unkind saying this, but I valued my job.

  Just then, another man, standing behind the first, spoke up.If anything, he looked more pitiable.“Charge it to me,” was all he said.

  What I had been feeling was pity.Pity is soft and safe and easy.Compassion, on the other hand, is caring in action.I thanked the second man but told him that was not allowed either.Then I reached into my pocket and paid for the biscuits myself.I reached into my pocket because these two men had reached into my heart and taught me compassion.

  解析:故事采用顺叙的叙事方法,主要情节发展如下:One aged gentleman begged me to have the food on trust and promised to repay the next day.---- I told him the store rules didn’t allow me to do so.---- Another man wanted me to charge the food to him.----I paid for the biscuits myself. 作者用第一人称讲述自己亲身经历的这段故事,让人觉得亲切可信,同时也增强了文章的感染力。作者说自己通过这段故事学会了compassion(同情),事实上也是在号召读者多伸出同情之手,共建和谐社会。

  抓住了故事的情节,了解了作者的写作意图。再来做理解题,就容易多了。请看看下面几道理解题:

  41.The aged gentleman who wanted to buy the biscuits ______.

  A.promised to obey the store rules

  B.forgot to take any money with him

  C.hoped to have the food first and pay later

  D.could not afford anything more expensive

  42.Which of the following best describes the old gentleman?

  A.kind and lucky  B.poor and lonely

  C.friendly and helpful D.hurt and disappointed

  43.The writer acted upon the store rules because ______.

  A.he wanted to keep his present job

  B.he felt no pity for the old gentleman

  C.he considered the old man dishonest

  D.he expected someone else to pay for the old man

  44.What does the writer learn from his experience?

  A.Wealth is more important than anything else.

  B.Helping others is easier said than done.

  C.Experience is better gained through practice.

  D.Obeying the rules means more than compassion.

  (参考答案:CBAB)

  【实战演练练习十六】(05天津卷 C篇)

  The house was quiet at 5 A.m. and Tim’s mother was asleep. Only the sound of the big freezer broke the quiet. He’d dreamt of the cave last night? The purring (轻微颤动声) of the freezer had been the sea .

  Tim pulled on a sweater and put some apples into his schoolbag. It was too early for breakfast. He’d eat after he’d been through the cave, sitting on the rocks and staring at the seA.

  He wished he had a proper pack. His schoolbag would have to do. What else? Sandwiches— but his mother might wake up if he started pulling out bread for sandwiches, she’d want to know why he had to leave so early. He settled for some biscuits, and left a note stuck to the table.

  Gone to Michael’s Back tonight . Tim .

  The sky was high and soft and light outside, though the sun still wasn’t up. Even the highway up the hill was quiet as he made his way down the street. The wind from the sea was fresh and sweet.

  The sandhills still breathed heat from yesterday’s sun, though the top of the sand was cool. He ran down to the beach impatiently, but there was no one, just dry sand dancing in the early wind and seabirds marching up and down watching the waves.

  The light changed suddenly. The first rays of sunlight stretched (延伸) across the sea . The sun was pushing its way over the edge of the world.

  Over the first rocks, along to the point. Tim glanced back. The beach was still empty. The sun sailed higher in the sky.

  He could see the cave now, even darker in the morning light. The sand turned silver then dark gold as the water flowed away from it. He had to force himself to go closer. Why was it so much more mysterious (神秘)now? But it would be silly to go back now after so much trouble. He needn’t go in all the way …

  43.What did Tim do at the beginning of the story?

  A.He left the house quietly. B.He had breakfast at home.

  C.He left a note on the freezer. D.He put a sweater in his schoolbag.

  44.“He settled for some biscuits ” (in Paragraph 3) means that Tim           .

  A.had to leave the biscuits on the table .

  B.liked biscuits better than sandwiches

  C.had to take biscuits instead of sandwiches

  D.could only find some biscuits in the kitchen

  45.What made it possible for Tim to see the entry to the cave?

  A.The height of the first rocks.

  B.The ups and downs of the waves.

  C.The change in the position of the sun.

  D.The vast stretch of the sunlit beach.

  46.Whish of the following statements is TRUE according to the story?

  A.The sea looked like a piece of gold.

  B.Seabirds flew away when Tim arrived.

  C.Tim was the only person on the beach.

  D.The sky got dark as Tim reached the cave.

  47.In the story , Tim’s mood (心情) changed from        .

  A.loneliness to craziness B.anxiousness to excitement

  C.helplessness to happiness  D.eagerness to nervousness

  【实战演练练习十七】(05上海卷 B篇)

  “Come in. Kim. Have a seat, please.” said Bill Williams, the manager. This was Kim’s first experience with an assessment. After only six months he was due for a raise if this assessment was satisfactory.

  “Kim,” began Bill Williams. “I am very pleased with the quality of your work. I have nothing but praise for your devotion and your hard work. My only concern is that you are not active enough in putting forward your suggestions.”

  “But,” Replied Kim, “I have always completed every assignment you have given me. Mr. Williams.”

  “I know that, Kim. And please, call me Bill. But what I expect is for you to think independently and introduce new ideas. I need more input from you —more feedback on how things are going I don’t need a “yes man”. You never tell me what you think. You just smile as though everything is fine.”

  “But,” said Kim, “I feel that since you are my superior, it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do.”

  “I’m not asking you to tell me what to do, but what you think we could do. To make suggestions. I employed you because I respect your experience in this field, but you are not communicating your thoughts to me.”

  “Yes. I see I’m not accustomed to this, but I will try to do as you say …, Bill”

  “Good, then, I expect to hear more from you at staff meetings or at any other time you want to discuss an idea with me.”

  “Yes, of course. Thank you Mr. Will…Bill.”

  69.Kim is the sort of employee who         .

  A.does not speak out his own ideas  B.is not devoted to the job

  C.laughs too much over work  D.can not finish his work on time

  70.The word “presumptuous” in the middle of the passage is closest in meaning to “      ” .

  A.full of respect   B.too confident and rude

  C.lacking in experience  D.too shy and quiet

  71.From the passage, we can learn that        .

  A.Kim has been invited to take charge of the staff meetings

  B.the manager appreciates those who just do what he tells them to do

  C.the manager is pleased with Kim’s hard work and his suggestions

  D.Kim is likely to have a higher salary if he can pass the assessment

  【实战演练练习十八】(06安徽卷 B篇)

  People fell in love with Elizabeth Taylor in 1944, when she starred in National Velvet-the story of Velvet Brown, a young girl who wins first place in a famous horse race, At first, the producers of the movie told Taylor that she was too small to play the part of Velvet. However, they waited for her for a few months as she exercised and trained—and added three inches to her height in four months! Her acting in National Velvet is still considered the best by a child actress.

  Elizabeth Taylor was born in London in 1932.Her parents, both Americans, had moved there for business reasons. When World war II started, the Taylor moved to Beverly Hills, California, and there Elizabeth started acting in movies. After her success as a child star, Taylor had no trouble moving into adult (成人) roles and won twice for Best Actress: Butterfield 8(1960) and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf ? (1966)

  Taylor’s fame(名声)and popularity gave her a lot of power with the movie industry, so she was able to demand very high pay for her movies. In 1963, she received $1 million for her part in Cleopatra—the highest pay received by any star up to that time.

  Elizabeth Taylor is a legend (传奇人物) of our time. Like Velvet Brown in National Velvet, she has been lucky, she has beauty, fame and wealth. But she is also a hard worker. Taylor seldom acts in movies any more. Instead, she puts her time and efforts into her businesses, and into helping others — several years ago, she founded an organization that has raised more than $40 million for research and education.

  60.The producers didn’t let Taylor play the part of Velvet at first because they thought she           .

  A.was small in size      B.was too young

  C.did not play well enough     D.did not show much interest

  61.What Elizabeth Taylor and Velvet Brown had in common was that they were both          .

  A.popular all their lives     B.famous actresses

  C.suecessful when very young   D.rich and kind-hearted

  62.Taylor became Best Actress at the age of          .

  A.12         B.28                  C.31          D.34

  63.In her later life , Elizabeth Taylor devoted herself to             .

  A.doing business and helping others

  B.turning herself into a legend

  C.collecting money for the poor

  D.going about research and education work





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