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高考英语不同体裁文章的阅读方法-说明文

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-14 19:24:25
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说明文的阅读方法

  说明文用平实的语言客观地解释或探讨各种问题,如机器的制造过程、自然或社会现象产生的原因、工程项目的规划或问题的解决方案等等,介绍自然科学、社会科学领域的最新成果,社会经济发展过程中出现的新生事物等等。说明事物可采用多种方式:例如举例、分类法或类比、对比法,给事物下定义或分析事物产生的原因以及后果。举例说明文使用例子说明事物阐明观点;分解展开法着重于事物的区别、差异,分类展开法则强调事物的相似之处;类比说明事物如何相似,对比说明事物如何不同;因果说明文表明事物发生的原因及结果。除了用文字说明以外,说明文中常常使用数据、图片等资料。

  无论采用什么说明方法,作者都是为了说明事物的本质特征、清晰地展现所说明的事物。

  因此,阅读说明文的关键是:抓住事物的特点,即抓住说明对象的本质特征。

  下面具体看看两篇说明文。

  (05 重庆卷 B 段)

  Reading is very important to help you learn English. To learn as much as you can from reading, you need to read different kinds of English. This book provides not only different kinds of English but also a good way to check your reading ability.

  There are four parts in the book:

  Part 1 is Messages: In this part somebody wants to send information in writing to somebody else.

  There is a test on timetables and a test on text messages.

  Part 2 is People: In this part all the tests are about people. For example, there is an informal letter between friends. There is formal (正式的) English in biography (传记) . There is a job application as a model to help with your writing, as well as testing your reading.

  Part 3 is Places: In this part, too. Many different kinds of English are shown, some informal and some formal. There is the informal English of a holiday postcarD.There is also the formal English in a letter of complaint.

  Part 4 is Things: You will find some descriptive writing in this part. There are descriptions of clothes and of a computer.

  You can do these tests in any order you like, or you can do all the tests with a formal or informal text.

  I enjoyed writing this book and I hope you enjoy using it.

  解析:这篇文章使用浅显平实的语言详细介绍了这本书的4个部分的内容。说明的重点在书的内容,这本书的特征体现在它的内容。抓住了这一特点,也就读懂了这篇文章,再来做理解题,就容易多了。看看相关的理解题:

  59.We can find the introduction to a product in         .

  A.Part 1 B.Part 2 C.Part 3 D.Part 4

  60.Which of the following is most probably written in informal English?

  A.A letter of complaint. B.A computer handbook.

  C.A letter to a frienD. D.A story of a president.

  61.The passage is most probably written for         .

  A.test designers  B.students  C.test-takers  D.teachers

  62.What is the best title of the book?

  A.Test Your Reading  B.Help with Your Writing

  C.Learn Different Kinds of English  D.Practise English in Different Ways

  (参考答案:DCBA)

  (05 山东卷  E篇)

  A device that stops drivers from falling asleep at the wheel is about to undergo testing at Department of Transport laboratories and could go on sale within 12 months.

  The system, called Driver Alert, aims to reduce deadly road accidents by 20%--40% that are caused by tiredness. Airline pilots can also use it to reduce the 30% of all pilot-error accidents that are related to fatigue.

  Driver Alert is based on a computerized wristband.The device, worn by drivers or pilots, gives out a sound about every four minutes during a car journey. After each sound the driver must respond by squeezing the steering wheel(方向盘). A sensor in the wristband detects this pressing action and measures the time between the sound and the driver’s response.

  Tiredness is directly related to a driver’s response time. Usually, a watchful driver would take about 400 milliseconds to respond, but once that falls to more than 500 milliseconds, it suggests that the driver is getting sleepy.

  In such cases the device gives out more regular and louder sounds, showing that the driver should open a window or stop for a rest. If the driver’s response continues to slow down, the sounds become more frequent until a nonstop alarm warns that the driver must stop as soon as possible.

  The device has been delivered to the department’s laboratories for testing. If these tests, scheduled for six months’ time, are successful, the markets will bring the product to market within about a year.

  解析:这篇文章说明Driver Alert这一驾驶员警报装置。抓住了它的工作原理、功能作用就抓住了它的本质特点。3、4、5自然段是理解的重点:开车时驾驶员腕带上的警报会每隔4分钟发出声音,驾驶员听到声音按压方向盘作出反应。传感器会探测到从听到声音到作出反应之间的时间差,如果这个时间差大于500毫秒,说明驾驶员疲劳打瞌睡。了解了这个装置的特点,就读懂了这篇文章。看看理解题:

  72.According to the text, Driver Alert _____.

  A.aims to reduce tiredness-related accidents

  B.has gone through testing at laboratories

  C.aims to prevent drivers from sleeping

  D.has been on sale for 12 months

  73.How should a driver respond to the sounds from Driver Alert?

  A.By sounding a warning.  B.By touching the wristband.

  C.By checking the driving time. D.By pressing the steering wheel.

  74.We can learn from the text that the driver needs to stop for a break when his response time

  is _____.

  A.about 400 milliseconds   B.below 500 milliseconds

  C.over 500 milliseconds  D.about 4 minutes

  75.When the driver gets sleepy while driving, Driver Alert _____.

  A.moves more regularly B.stops working properly

  C.opens the window for the driver   D.sounds more frequently and loudly

  (参考答案:ADCD)

  【实战演练练习十九】(05辽宁卷 D篇)

  While income worry is a rather common problem of the aged, loneliness is another problem that aged parents may face. Of all the reasons that explain their loneliness, a large geographical distance between parents and their children is the major one. This phenomenon(现象)is commonly known as “Empty Nest Syndrome”(空巢综合症).

  In order to seek better chances outside their countries, many young people have gone abroad, leaving their parents behind with no clear idea of when they will return home. Their parents spend countless lonely days and nights, taking care of themselves, in the hope that someday their children will come back to stay with them. The fact that most of these young people have gone to Europeanized or Americanized societies makes it unlikely that they will hold as tightly to the value of duty as they would have if they had not left their countries. Whatever the case, it has been noted that the values they hold do not necessarily match what they actually do. This geographical and cultural distance also prevents the grown-up children from providing response(回应)in time for their aged parents living by themselves.

  The situation in which grown-up children live far away from their aged parents has been described as “distant parent phenomenon”, which is common both in developed countries and in developing countries. Our society has not yet been well prepared for “Empty Nest Syndrome”.

  68.According to the passage, the loneliness of aged parents is mainly caused by _________.

  A.their earlier experience of feeling lonely

  B.the unfavorable living conditions in their native countries

  C.the common worry about their income

  D.the geographical distance between parents and children

  69.Many young people have gone abroad, leaving their aged parents behind, to _________.

  A.live in the countries with more money

  B.seek a better place for their aged parents

  C.continue their studies abroad

  D.realize their dreams in foreign countries

  70.If young people go abroad, _________.

  A.they do not hold to the value of duty at all

  B.they can give some help to their parents back home

  C.they cannot do what they should for their parents

  D.they believe what they actually do is right

  71.From the last paragraph, we can infer that ________.

  A.the situations in the developed and developing countries are different

  B.“Empty Nest Syndrome” has arrived unexpectedly in our society

  C.children will become independent as soon as they go abroad

  D.the aged parents are not fully prepared for “Empty Nest Syndrome”

  【实战演练练习二十】(05辽宁卷 E篇)

  There are two kinds of physical activity which require special training. The first demands exact careful movements of the muscles(肌肉). This kind of activity must be strictly controlled because even a slight movement in the wrong direction will lead a mistake. To type quickly, for example, a person needs training; the slightest movement of a finger in the wrong direction may cause a spelling mistake. A dancer who has to dance on the point of her shoes or turn around on one foot must be trained for a long period of time before she can sense her own center and balance herself. You may have seen a girl walking on a rope across an empty space, which, too, requires a lot of practice.

  The second kind of physical activity needs greater strength or extra effort. Most of us get tired if we try to run half a mile without stopping, but a specially-trained person can do this without much effort. Three years ago, some scientists carried out experiments, which produced meaningful and unexpected results. They wanted to find out whether a certain amount of physical exercise would injure those suffering from heart problems. They selected some male patients and trained them in continuous bicycle riding. They were surprised to find that the harmful effect of given amount of physical effort was actually less on the hearts of these trained patients than on those of the patients who were not similarly trained.This is important because it shows that regular physical exercise enables us to make better use of the oxygen(氧气)we breathe in and that this training, in fact, reduces the amount of work our hearts do. Many tasks which are hard for untrained people are not hard at all for trained people.

  72.The first kind of physical activity must be strictly controlled because _________.

  A.a mistake in the wrong direction is dangerous to the fingers

  B.a wrong movement in a direction will cause no mistakes

  C.a movement in the wrong direction will cause a mistake

  D.a slight movement of a finger will lead to a mistake

  73.What must a dancer do before she can balance herself?

  A.She must dance on the point of her shoes.

  B.She must receive long-time training.

  C.She must turn around on one foot.

  D.She must perform again and again.

  74.The experiments done by some scientists showed that ________.

  A.some male patients were asked to ride bicycles regularly in the experiments

  B.the physical exercise had more harmful effect on the hearts of the untrained patients

  C.the physical exercise was harmless to the male patients with heart trouble

  D.the physical exercise could be helpful for the patients to take in more oxygen

  75.What would be the best title for this text?

  A.Training Our Bodies B.Physical Activities

  C.Movement Training D.Extra Body Effort

  【实战演练练习二十一】(05广东卷 C篇)

  "Have you ever been out on a boat and felt it lifted up by a wave? Or have you jumped in the

  water and felt the rush of energy as waves came over you?" asked Jamie Taylor of the Wave Energy Group at the University of Edinburgh."There is certainly a lot of energy in waves," he said.Scientists are working to use that energy to make electricity.Most waves are created when

  winds blow across the ocean."The wind starts out by making little ripples (涟漪) , but if they

  keep on blowing, those ripples get bigger and bigger and turn into waves," Taylor saiD.“Waves

  are one of nature ’s ways of picking up energy and then sending it off on a journey.”

  When waves come toward the shore, people can set up dams to block the water and send it

  through a large wheel called a turbine (涡轮机) .The turbine can then power an electrical

  generator to produce electricity.

  "The resource is huge," said Janet Swain of the World watch Institute."We will never run out of wave power." Besides, wave energy does not create the same pollution as other energy sources, such as oil or coal.Oceans cover three-quarters of the Earth’s surface - that would make wave power seem ideal for creating energy throughout the world, though there are some weak points yet to overcome.

  Swain said that wave power still costs too much money.She also said that its effects on sea animals are still unknown.What is more, wave power could affect fishing and boat traffiC.

  Traditional sources of energy like oil and gas may someday run out."Demand for energy to

  power our TVs and computers, drive our cars, and heat and cool our homes is rising rapidly throughout the world," Swain said.In the future when you turn on a light, an ocean wave could be

  providing the electricity!

  64.The writer uses the two questions at the beginning of the passage to _______.

  A.test the readers’ knowledge about waves

  B.draw the readers’ attention to the topic

  C.show Jamie Taylor’s importance

  D.invite the readers to answer them

  65.The underlined phrase "picking up" (paragraph 2) is closest in meaning to _______.

  A.starting again B.speeding up C.gathering D.improving

  66.We can make better use of wave energy if we _______.

  A.shorten its journey to thousands of homes

  B.build more small power stations on the oceans

  C.reduce the cost of turning it into electric power

  D.quicken the steps of producing electricity

  67.It can be inferred that some day we might not worry about ________.

  A.air pollution  B.our boat traffic

  C.our power supply D.our supply of sea fish

  【实战演练练习二十二】(06安徽卷 D篇)

  To extinguish (熄灭) different kinds of fires, several types of fire extinguishers have been inventeD.They must be ready for immediate use when fire breaks out. Most portable (手提式的) kinds operate for less than a minute, so they are useful only on small fires. The law requires ships, trains, buses and planes to carry extinguishers.

  Since fuel, oxygen (氧气) and heat must be present in order for fire to exist, one or more of these things must be removed or reduced to extinguish a fire. If the heat is reduced by cooling the material below a certain temperature, the fire goes out. The cooling method is the most common way to put out a fire. Water is the best cooling material because it is low in cost and easy to get.

  Another method of extinguishing fire is by cutting off the oxygen. This is usually done by covering the fire with sand, steam or some other things. A blanket may be used do cover a small fire.

  A third method is called separation, which includes removing the fuel, or material easy to burn, from a fire, so that it can find no fuel.

  The method that is used to put out a fire depends upon the type of fire. Fires have been grouped in three classes. Fires in wood, paper, cloth and the like are called Class A fires. These materials usually help keep the fire on. Such fires can be stopped most readily by cooling with water.

  69.If a fire breaks out on a bus, which of the follow should be ready there for you to use?

  A.Sand        B.Water

  C.A blanket.       D.An extinguisher.

  69.To cover a small piece of burning wood with a basin in order to stop the fire is an example of         .

  A.separating the fire      B.reducing the heat

  C.removing the fuel      D.cutting off the oxygen

  70.In choosing how to put out a fire, we should first be clear about          .

  A.when it breaks out     B.how it comes about

  C.what kind it is      D.where it takes place

  71.What would the author probably discuss in the paragraph that follows?

  A.Another class of fires     B.Another type of extinguishers

  C.How fires break out.     D.How fires can be prevented.

  【实战演练练习二十三】(06江苏卷 E篇)

  A new eight-kilometre road is under construction that links the port area with the motorway system. It is expected to carry 20,000 trucks and cars a day, which greatly reduces the overcrowded traffic in the centre of the city. As part of the project, two four-kif0metre road tunnels are being built below the central area of the city, one for traffic to the north and the other for traffic to the south. The two tunnels are about 20 metres below the surface and are 12 metres wide, providing for two lanes of traffic in each direction.

  In the upper part of the tunnel two air-conditioning pipes remove the waste gas of trucks and cars and keep the quality of air inside the tunnel. The lighting is at the top of the tunnel, practically at its highest point. There will also be electronic signs at frequent intervals (间隔). They show traffic conditions ahead, and can be seen clearly by drivers. The wall is made up of four main elements, which include a waterproofing covering and, on the inside of the tunnel, a concrete lining(混凝土衬砌).

  Each tunnel is roughly round and the lower part of the tunnel is somewhat flat. The surface of the road lies on the base, which is made of concrete and steel. The drainage system (排水系统), just below the road surface on one aide, removes any extra liquid, particularly water. In the event of fire, the fire main, which is made of steel, pipes water to many fire hydrant stations at regular intervals along the length of the tunnel. The fire main is at the side of the tunnel, and at the level of the road surface. Other systems in the tunnel will include emergency phones.

  72.Each of the tunnels under construction is ___________.

  A.eight kilometres long and twenty metres wide

  B.eight kilometres long and six metres wide

  C.four kilometres long and twenty metres wide

  D.four kilometres long and six metres wide

  73.Which part of the tunnel in the diagram is used to pipe out extra water?

  A.1.  B.3.      C.5.   D.6.

  74.Driving in the tunnel, one can know the traffic conditions ahead through ________.

  A.the lights  B.the electronic signs  C.the trucks and cars   D.the emergency phones

  75.The passage is mainly about _____________.

  A.the construction of a road                  B.the design of a road

  C.the construction of two tunnels              D.the design of two tunnels





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