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高考英语不同体裁文章的阅读方法-议论文

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-13 19:24:25
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议论文的阅读方法

  议论文也就是说理性的文章,一般由论点、论据和论证过程组成。议论文都要提出论题、观点、提供充分的证据(evidence),使用一定的逻辑方法证明观点或得出结论。

  阅读议论文我们要抓住论题、抓住作者提出的观点、给出的例证及最后得出的结论。抓住了论题、抓住了观点,我们就把握了中心,再结合作为论据的诸多事例和理由之间以及它们和观点/结论之间的内在联系,我们就能理解文章的结构。因此,阅读议论文的关键是:抓论题、抓观点。

  看看下面一篇例文:

  (05 江苏卷 E段)

  The twentieth century saw greater changes than any century before changes for the better, changes for the worse, changes that brought a lot of benefits to human beings, changes that put man in danger .Many things caused the changes, but, in my opinion, the most important was the progress in science.

  Scientific research in physics and biology has vastly broadened our views. It has given us a deeper knowledge of the structure of matter and of the universe, it has brought us a better understanding of the nature of life and of its continuous development. Technology in the application of science has made big advances that have benefited us in nearly every part of life.

  The continuation of such activities in the twenty-first century will result in even greater advantages to human beings: in pure science—a wider and deeper knowledge in all fields of learning; in applied science—a more reasonable sharing of material benefits, and better protection of the environment.

  Sadly, however, there is another side to the picture. The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankind.The application of science and technology to the development and production of weapons of mass destruction has created a real danger to the continued existence of the human race on this planet. We have seen this happen in the case of nuclear weapons, Although their actual use has so far occurred only in the Second World War, the number of nuclear weapons that were produced and made ready for use was so large that if the weapons had actually been used, the result could have been the ruin of the human race, as well as of many kinds of animals.

  William Shakespeare said.“The web of our life is of a mingled yarn(纱线), good and ill together. “The above brief review of the application of only one part of human activities—science seems to prove what Shakespeare said.But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war?

  解析:作者在第一段提出论题:The progress in science caused the changes in the twentieth century. 接下来,第二、三段作者提出论据:The progress in science has brought  us advantages and the continuation of the progress will surely result in even greater advantages.第四段作者从另一方面提出论据:The creativity of science has been employed in doing damage to mankind.再接下来,按行文结构作者应该作出结论,但作者在第五段并没有直接说出不言自明的结论(We should separate the good from the ill.),而是用了几个问句:But does it have to be so? Must the ill always go together with the good? Are we biologically programmed for war? 这样可引起读者对结论的深入思考,引起读者的重视。

  看看下面的理解题:

  72.Which of the following best shows the structure of the passage?

  73.From the fourth paragraph, we can infer that       .

  A.a great many nuclear weapons were actually used for war

  B.a large number of nuclear weapons should have been used for war

  C.the author is doubtful about the ruin of human beings by nuclear weapons

  D.the author is anxious about the huge number of nuclear weapons on the earth

  74.The underlined word “mingled” in the last paragraph most probably means     .

  A.simple B.mixed C.sad D.happy

  75.What do you think the author is most likely to suggest if he continues to write?

  A.Further application of science to war.

  B.More reading of William Shakespeare.

  C.Proper use of science in the new century.

  D.Effective ways to separate the good from the ill.

  (参考答案:ADBD)

  【实战演练练习二十四】(05北京卷 C篇)

  How could we possibly think that keeping animals in cages in unnatural environments-mostly for entertainment purposes-is fair and respectful?

  Zoo officials say they are concerned about animals. However, most zoos remain “collections” of interesting “things” rather than protective habitats(栖息地). Zoos teach people that it is acceptable to keep animals bored, lonely, and far from their natural homes.

  Zoos claim(声称) to educate people and save endangered species(物种), but visitors leave zoos without having learned anything meaningful about the animals’ natural behavior, intelligence, or beauty. Zoos keep animals in small spaces or cages, and most signs only mention the species’ name, diet, and natural range(分布区). The animals’ normal behavior is seldom noticed because zoos don’t usually take care of the animals’ natural needs.

  The animals are kept together in small spaces, with no privacy and little opportunity for mental and physical exercise. This results in unusually and self-destructive behavior called zoochosis. A worldwide study of zoos found that zoochosis is common among animals kept in small spaces or cages. Another study showed that elephants spend 22 percent of their time making repeated head movements or biting cage bars, and bears spend 30 percent of their time walking back and forth, a sign of unhappiness and pain.

  Furthermore, most animals in zoos are not endangered.Captive breeding(圈养繁殖) of endangered big cats. Asian elephants, and other species has not resulted in their being sent back to the wilD.Zoos talk a lot about their captive breeding programs because they do not want people to worry about a species dying out. In fact, baby animals also attract a lot of paying customers. Haven’t we seen enough competitions to name baby animals?

  Actually, we will save endangered species only if we save their habitats and put an end to the reasons people kill them. Instead of supporting zoos, we should support groups that work to protect animals’ natural habitats.

  64.How would the author describe the animals’ life in zoos?

  A.Dangerous. B.Unhappy. C.Natural. D.Easy.

  65.In the state of zoochosis, animals _________.

  A.remain in cages  B.behave strangely

  C.attack other animals D.enjoy moving around

  66.What does the author try to argue in the passage?

  A.Zoos are not worth the public support.

  B.Zoos fail in their attempt to save animals.

  C.Zoos should treat animals as human beings.

  D.Zoos use animals as a means of entertainment.

  67.The author tries to persuade readers to accept his argument mainly by _________.

  A.pointing out the faults in what zoos do

  B.using evidence he has collected at zoos

  C.questioning the way animals are protected

  D.discussing the advantages of natural habitats

  68.Although he argues against zoos, the author would still agree that __________.

  A.zoos have to keep animals in small cages

  B.most animals in zoos are endangered species

  C.some endangered animals are reproduced in zoos

  D.it’s acceptable to keep animals away from their habitats

  【实战演练练习二十五】(04上海卷 C篇)

  We are all interested in equality, but while some people try to protect the school and examination system in the name of equality, other, still in the name of equality, want only to destroy it.

  Any society which is interested in equality of opportunity and standards of achievement must regularly test its pupils. The standards may be changed—no examination is perfect—but to have to tests or examinations would mean the end of equality and of standards. There are groups of people who oppose this view and who do not believe either in examinations or in any controls in school or on teachers. This would mean that everything would depend on luck since every pupil would depend on the efficiency, the values and the purpose of each teacher.

  Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them—a form of favouritism will replace equality. At the moment, the bright child from an ill—respected school can show certificates to prove he or she is suitable for a job, while the lake of certificate indicates the unsuitability of a dull child attending a well—respected school. This defend of excellence and opportunity would disappear if examinations were taken away, and the bright child form a poor family would be a prisoner of his or her school’s reputation, unable to compete for employment with the child from the favoured school.

  The opponents of the examination system suggest that examinations are an evil force because they show differences between pupils. According to these people, there must be no special, different, academic class. They have even suggested that there should be no form of difference in sport or any other area: all jobs or posts should be filled by unsystematic selection. The selection would be made by people who themselves are probably selected by some computer.

  82.The word “favouritism” in paragraph 3 is used to describe the phenomenon that________.

  A.bright children also need certificates go get satisfying jobs.

  B.children from well—respected schools tend to have good jobs

  C.poor children with certificates are favoured in job markets

  D.children attending ordinary schools achieve great success

  83.What would happen if examinations were taken away according to the author?

  A.Schools for bright children would lose their reputation.

  B.There would be more opportunities and excellence.

  C.Children from poor families would be able to change their schools.

  D.Children’s job opportunity would be affected by their school reputation.

  84.The opponents of the examination system will agree that _________.

  A.jobs should not be assigned by systematic selection

  B.computers should be selected to take over many jobs

  C.special classed are necessary to keep the school standards

  D.schools with academic subjects should be done away with

  85.The passage mainly focuses on ___________.

  A.schools and certificates             B.examination and equality

  C.opportunity and employment         D.standards and reputation





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