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高考英语阅读理解专题指导-主旨大意题

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-10 19:24:25
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第三讲   主旨大意题

  主旨大意题主要是测试考生对一篇文章或一段文字的深层理解程度及在速读中准确把握文章主旨大意的能力。一般针对某一语段或某一语篇的主题标题或目的设题。常见的设题方式有:

  1标题类常见的标题型题干:

  1)The best title/ headline for this passage might be_____________.

  2)The text (passage) could be entitled   ______________.

  3)What is the best title for the passage?

  4)Which of the following would be suitable as a title for the passage?

  2 大意类常见的主题型题干:

  5) This passage chiefly deals with____________.6) What’s the topic of the article?

  7) What is the subject discussed in the text?

  8) With what topic is the passage chiefly concerned?

  3 目的主旨大意题

  The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is______.

  The passage is meant to _____     The purpose of this article is _______

  这类题通常围绕一个中心思想展开,不少文章一开头便展示出文章的中心思想,第一段常常是内容的梗概,同时又表达了中心思想,但是不少文章的中心思想贯穿全文,并没有用一句话明确表达出来,这就要求学生学会归纳概括。每个段落往往也由一个主题句或几个陈述句构成,它们在句中的位置不同,有时在开头, 首先点明本段大意; 有时在结尾, 总结本段大意。

  做这类题,首先要找出文章的主题句。找出文章的主题句,也就明确了文章要讲什么,再通过速读全文,就可以把握文章的中心思想了。另外在许多文段中,没有可以概括全段意义的主题句,必须根据文章中所提供的事实细节,进行全面分析,然后归纳成一般概念。但必须注意,既不能以偏概全,也不能在概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。

  A.主题句呈现的形式

  1)文首开门见山, 提出主题, 随之用细节来解释, 支撑或发展主题句所表达的主题思想. 最常见的演绎法写作方式.

  例1.The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always front page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed pandas are among the most popular toys for children, and panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shops.

  例2.Today the problem of environment has become more and more serious. The world population is rising, so quickly that the world has become too crowded. We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are polluting our environment with dangerous chemicals. If we continue to do this, human life on earth will not survive.

  2).文尾,在表述细节后, 归纳要点, 印象, 结论建议或结果, 以概括主题. 这是英语中最常见的归纳法写作方式

  例3.A human body appears to be rather soft and delicate, compared with that of a wild animal, but it is actually surprisingly strong. In deed, its very softness and looseness is an advantage; it makes man good at moving about movement of all living things of his own size, because he can do so many different things with his limbs. Man’s games show how he can control his own body. No other land creature can swim as skillfully as man; more has such varied grace; very few lives as long as he; none is so strong in its natural resistance to disease. Therefore man has a great advantage in his battle against the risks of damage and death that threaten him.

  3).文中,通常前面只提出问题, 文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展.

  例4.Nothing is as useful as a flashlight in a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand a camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

  4).首尾呼应,为突出主题, 作者先提出主题, 结尾时再次点出主题, 这种首尾呼应的写作方式较为多见. 但前后表述主题的句子不是简单的重复, 后面的表述往往有进一步的引申或发展的意味。

  例5.(首段)Shu Pulong has helped at least 1000 people bitten by snakes, “ It was seeing people with snakes bites that led me to the career.“she said…

  &O1472;(尾段)“The sad story touched me so much that I decided to devote myself to helping people bitten by

  snakes.”Shu said.

  5).无主题句,即主题句隐含在全文中, 没有明确的主题句. 必须根据文篇中所提供的事实细节,进行全面考虑,综合分析,然后找出共同的东西,归纳成一般概念。必须注意的是,既不能以偏概全,也不能在概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。

  例6.Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.

  Q: What is the main idea of the passage? ____

  A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.        B. Bingham is a diligent student.

  C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. D. A good lawyer needs good education.

  [分析]此文没有主题句。全篇共四句,只陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事实。因此就答案本身看,个个都对。读者只能将所有的 details综合起来,进行逻辑推理,才能构成一个没有言明的主题思想(unstated main idea)。由于文中主要涉及了Joshua Bingham接受教育的情况,即作者想告诉我们的是:Joshua Bingham接受过良好的教育,所以答案是 C

  除了以上主题句呈现的常见形式外还要注意标志词

  文章或段落的主题句常常会出现在一些标志性的提示后。如:on the whole, as a result, in short, therefore, thus…..I agree with the opinion that….;Given all these points above, I would support the idea that….; For all the reasons mentioned above, I would prefer….

  B.实例说明

  例1(文章请看推理判断例2,2003年全国高考)

  ①What would be the best title for the text?

  A.Computers and Printers              B.E-mail and the Business World

  C.Internet Revolution and Environment   D.Modern Technology and New Markets

  [分析]本题考查对于全文主旨大意的把握并要求考生据此选择最佳标题.

  全文的关键词应该是Internet和Environment,因此答案为C.

  其余选项中的computers,printers,e—mail,business world,technology,market都在文中提到了,但其作用只是为了阐明主题所需,答题时不可以点代面.

  例2:As prices and building costs keep rising,the "do-it-yourself"(DIY)trend(趋势)in the U.S.continues to grow."We needed furniture(家具)for our living room,"says John Ross,"and we just didn’t have enough money to buy it.So we decided to try making a few tables and chairs."John got married six months ago,and like many young people these days,they are struggling to make a home at a time when the cost of living is very high.The Rosses took a 2-week course for $ 280 at a night school.Now they build all their furniture and make repairs around the house.Jim Hatfield has three boys and his wife died.Hs has a full-time job at home as well as in a shoe making factory.Last month,he received a car repair bill for $ 420."I was deeply upset about it.Now I’ve finished a car repair course,I should be able to fix the car by myself."John and Jim are not unusual people.Most families in the country are doing everything they can to save money so the can fight the high cost of living.If you want to become a "do-it-yourselfer",you can go to DIY calsses.And for those who don’t have time to take a course,there are books that tell you how you can do things yourself.(1998NMET)

  ②.What would be the best title for the text?

  A.the Joy of DIY                  B.You Can Do It Too!

  C.Welcome to Our DIY Course!      D.Ross and Hatfield:Believers in DIY.

  [分析]根据首句As prices and building costs keep rising,the "do-it-yourself"(DIY)trend(趋势)in the U.S.continues to grow.和尾句And for those who don’t have time to take a course,there are books that tell you how you can do things yourself.可以知道答案为B

  例3:A university graduate described as a “respectable and intelligent” woman is seeking professional help after being convicted of (证明有……罪)shoplifting for the second time in six months.

  Ana Luz, recently studying for her PhD,has been told she could end up behind bars unless she can control the desire to steal from shops .

  Luz ,who lives with her partner in Fitzwilliam Road ,Cambridge ,admitted stealing clothes worth £9.95 from John Lewis in Oxford Street ,London ,on March 9.

  Phillip Lemoyne ,prosecuting(起诉),said Luz selected some clothes from a display and took them to the ladies’ toilet in the store .When she came out again she was wearing one of the skirts she had selected ,having taken off the anti-theft security alarms(防盗警报装置).

  She was stopped and caught after leaving the store without paying ,Mr Lemoyne said.

  He added that she was upset on her arrest and apologized for her actions.

  Luz,28, was said to have been convicted of shoplifting by Cambridge judges last October ,but Morag Duff, defending ,said she had never been in trouble with the police before that .

  “She is ashamed and embarrassed but doesn’t really have any explanation why she did this ,” Miss Duff said . “She didn’t intend to steal when she went into the store .She is at a loss to explain it . She is otherwise a very respectable and intelligent young lady .She went to her doctor and asked for advice because she wants to know if there is anything in particular that caused her to do this.”

  Judge David Azan fined Luz £ 50,  and warned : “You’ve got a criminal record .If you carry on like this ,you will end up in prison ,which will ruin your bright future you may have.”

  Luz achieved a degree in design at university in her native Spain ,went on to a famous university in Berlin , Germany for her master’s degree and is now studying for a PhD at Cambridge University ,UK.(2004福建)

  ③.What would be the best title for the passage ?

  A.Shoplifting Shame of a PhD Student          B.Apologizing for the Actions in Shops

  C.Seeking Professional Help from Experts   D.Controlling the Desire to Steal from Shops

  [分析]文章主要讲的是一个女博士生盗窃的事,唯有A答案(女博士的偷窃丑闻)点出了主题,其他答案均为细节的描述,不能成为正确答案

  例4:Since many of you are planning to study at a college or university in this country, you may be curious to know what you usually do in a typical week, how you can get along with your fellow students, and so on.These are the questions I want to discuss with you today.

  First, let’s talk about  what your weekly schedule will look like. No matter what your major may be, you can expect to spend between four and six hours a week for each class attending lectures. Lectures are usually in very large rooms because some courses such as introduction to sociology or economics often have as many as two or three hundred students, especially at large universities. In lectures, it’s very important for you to take notes on what the professor says because the information a lecture is often different from the information in your textbooks. Also, you can expect to have exam questions based on the lectures. So it isn’t enough to just read your textbooks; you have to attend lectures as well. In a typical week you will also have a couple of hours of discussion for every class you take. The discussion section is a small group meeting usually with fewer than thirty students where you can ask questions about the lectures, the reading, and the homework. In large universities, graduate students, called teaching assistants, usually direct discussion sections.

  If your major is chemistry, or physics, or another science, you’ll also have to spend several hours a week in the lab, or laboratory, doing experiments. This means that science majors spend more time in the classroom than non science majors do. On the other hand, people who major in subjects like literature or history usually have to read and write more than science majors do.(2004重庆卷)

  ④.The main purpose of this text is        .

  A. to help the students to learn about university life    B. to persuade the students to attend lectures

  C. to encourage the sudents to take part in discussions  D. to advise the students to choose proper majors

  [分析]答案A  B、C为细节,无论对错不能成为此类题型的答案.D.没有涉及到如何选择专业的问题

  you may be curious to know what you usually do in a typical week, how you can get along with your fellow students, and so on.These are the questions I want to discuss with you today.

  例5:Handshaking, though a European practice is often seen in big cities of China. Nobody knows exactly when the practice started in Europe. It is said that long long ago in Europe when people met, they showed their unarmed (无武器的) hands to each other as a sign of goodwill. As time went on and trade in cities grew rapidly, people in cities began to clap each other’s hands to make a deal or to reach an agreement. This practice was later changed into shaking hands among friends on meeting or leaving each other. “Let’s shake (hands) on it” sometimes means agreement reached.

  Do the Europeans shake hands wherever they go and with whomever they meet? No. Sometimes the Chinese abroad reach out their hands too often to be polite. It is really very impolite to give your hand when the other party, especially when it is a woman, shows little interest in shaking hands with you and when the meeting does not mean anything to him or-her. Even if, for politeness, he holds out his unwilling hand in answer to your uninvited hand, just touch it slightly- There is generally a misunderstanding (误解) among the Chinese that westerners are usually open and straightforward, while the Chinese are rather reserved (保守的) in manner. But in fact some people in western countries more reserved than some Chinese today. So it is a good idea to shake hands with a westerner only when he shows interest in further relations with you.(2005年安徽卷)

  ⑤The first paragraph mainly tells us ______.

  A. where handshaking was first practiced

  B. how handshaking came about

  C. about the relationship between handshaking and trade

  D. about the practice of handshaking both in Europe and in China

  [分析]第一段主要讲述了握手的起源。答案B

  ⑥The main purpose of the text is ______.

  A. to tell us some differences between the East and the West

  B. to offer us some important facts about handshaking

  C. to introduce us to some different customs in the West

  D. to give us some advice before we travel abroad

  [分析]本篇讲述了在什么情况下握手比较得体,给我们提供了有关握手的事实。答案B





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