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高考英语阅读理解专题指导-推理判断题

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-9 19:24:25
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第二讲   推理判断题

  这类题属于主观题,是层次较高的设题。它包括判断和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。推理题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可是某几句话,但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写(paraphrase)或综合。

  常见的题干有:

  1) It can be inferred from the text that.

  2) We can conclude that.

  3) When the writer talks about..., what he really means is that.

  4) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

  判断题考查学生在理解文章的基础上,对不同观点进行评价和判断的能力。推理题考查学生由文章的字面信息推出未知信息或隐含信息的能力。

  1) 判断有据, 推论有理, 忠实原文。切忌用自己的观点代替作者的本意。

  2) 全面分析所有相关信息,切忌片面思考,得出片面结论。

  3) 善于揣摩作者思路,尽可能与作者的思路吻合。

  4)不可直接选取文中的原句。

  例1:                     Annealing

  Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. If metal is heated and then cooled very quickly, for example by dipping (浸) it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle-that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as it is wished, by annealing it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other material, such as glass.(1990NMET)

  ①Why do people put hot metal in water?

  A. To make it hard.     B. To make it soft.    C. To make it cool.     D. To make it brittle.

  [分析]答案为A,此题属推断归纳题。文中第二句说如果把金属加热,然后迅速放到水里冷却,也就会变得非常硬,但也变得脆。hard 是工艺的主观目的。brittle是伴随的客观结果,故选A而不选D。B项明显错

  误;C项是手段不是目的,因此,都可排除。

  ②In annealing, the required hardness of metal depends on __.

  A. the quantity of water used     B. the temperature of the metal

  C. the softness of the metal      D. the timing of the operation

  [分析]答案为D,此题属概括归纳题。timing 是时间的选择。本答案的依据是5和6两句,"The metal is heated,…length of time.","The longer…the softer it becomes."cool 的时间是可以控制的,时间越长越 soft,即硬度就越低。由此我们可得出结论:在退火过程中,金属的硬度是受到冷却的时间长短影响的。

  ③As suggested by the text, how can glass be made less brittle?

  A. It can be heated and then cooled quickly.    B. It can be cooled and then heated slowly.

  C. It can be heated and then cooled slowly.    D. It can be cooled and then heated quickly.

  [分析]答案为C此题属推理判断题。文中提到"metal"。最后一句说退火工艺同样可用于象玻璃一类的其他材料。文中我们已知"annealing"就是先"heat"后"cool slowly"。由此推断C是正确的。

  例2:At one time, computers were expected largely to remove the need for paper copies of documents (文件) because they could be stored electronically. But for all the texts that are written, stored and sent electronically, a lot of them are still ending up on paper.

  It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime. "I feel in my bones this revolution is causing more trees to be cut down," says Ted Smith of the Earth Village Organisation.

  Perhaps the best sign of how computer and Internet use pushes up demand for paper comes from the high-tech industry itself, which sees printing as one of its most promising new markets. Several Internet companies have been set upto help small businesses print quality documents from a computer. Earlier this week Hewlett-Packard Co. announced a plan to develop new technologies that will enable people to print even more so they can get a hard copy of a business document, a medical record or just a one-line e-mail, even if they are nowhere near a computer. As the company sees it, the more use of the Internet the greater demand for printers.

  Does all this mean environmental concerns(环境问题) have been forgotten? Some activists suggest people have been led to believe that a lot of dangers to the environment have gone away. "I guess people believe that the problem is taken care of, because of recycling(回收利用)," said Kelly Quirke, director of the Rainforest Action Network in San Francisco. Yet Quirke is hopeful that high-tech may also prove helpful. He says printers that print on both sides are growing in popularity. The action group has also found acceptable paper made from materials other than wood, such as agricultural waste.(2003年全国卷)

  ④The growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to___________.

  A.the rapid development of small businesses  B.the opening up of new markets

  C.the printing of high quality copies         D.the increased use of the Internet

  [分析]本文话题为办公用纸与环保,讲述了计算机与网络的发展并没有如人们先前所预料的那样帮助我们实现无纸化办公,相反地,随着打印技术的发展,用纸量日益增大.于是还得依靠科技,寻找双面打印与开拓农业废料提供造纸原料等出路了.文中涉及科技发展、生产需求与环保之间的关系,内涵十分深刻,平时“两耳不闻窗外事”的人是很难一下读明白的.本题考查对于文中提供的事实与线索进行逻辑推理的能力.

  近年来纸张用量增加的原因何在?第2段中做出解释:It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-con-nected computers,...when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime...The growing demand for paper看来正是a result of use of Internet-connected computers.本题答案为D.其余3个选项内容虽然也都在短文不同地方有所涉及,但均非题干所问纸张用量增长的直接原因,可逐一排除.

  中,C项干扰性最大,第3段中所提及的Several Internet companies have been set up to help small businesses print quality documents from a computer 与选项C十分接近,因而对他们构成迷惑,这是因为考生没有能够认识到这一事实出现在本段中,只是为了说明how computer and Internet use pushes up demand for paper comes from the high-tech industry itself,然而the printing of high quality copies本身并非纸张需求增长的原因.

  “阅读理解”解题过程中,需要在通篇理解大意的基础上找到与本题相关的线索,弄清各项事实之间的联系,辨别选项内容之间的细微差别,排除干扰,找准最佳答案.[答案]  D

  ⑤Environmentalists believe one possible way of dealing with the paper situation is_________.

  A.to encourage printing more quality documents  B.to develop new printers using recycled paper

  C.to find new materials for making paper        D.to plant more fast-growing trees

  [分析]本题问及环保人士(environmentalists)对于用纸所引起的环保问题的解决途径所持看法.结尾段中谈到:The action group (= the environmentalists) has also found acceptable paper made from materials other than wood, such as agricultural waste,也就是本题选项中的C项to find new materials for making paper.

  通过查读可以发现,选项D在文中根本没有涉及,选项B将文中细节内容做了一点改变,形成干扰.

  考虑B项,文中为:the problem is taken care of, because of recycling...;...printers that prin to on both sides are growing in popularity(结尾段);两处内容综合衍生而成选项B.但并未说有使用recycled paper的new printers,本项应排除.

  D项所说的plant more fast-growing trees则在文中完全没有提到.[答案]  c

  ⑥Hewlett-Packard Co. has decided to develop new technologies because ________.

  A.people are concerned about the environment   B.printers in many offices are working overtime

  C.small companies need more hard copies       D.they see a growing market for printers

  [分析]题干中的HP Company(这家公司在打印机和电脑厂商里也可算是闻名遐迩了)是对我们寻找答案极为有用的线索,循此很快可以找到第3段里,该公司develop new technologies的原因(也是目的)在于:enable people to print even more....本段结尾则一语道破:As the company sees it,the more use of the Internet the greater demand for printers.显然只是要让人们更多地打印,牟利之心昭然若揭,其技术发展的原因与环保无关(排除A项);与超时办公也无直接逻辑联系(排除B项);对于hard copies有需求的也不仅仅是small companies(排除C项);本题正确答案为D.

  例3:A visitor visits an island where two tribes live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other always lies. The truth tellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truth teller or not by asking only one question. He asks the native,” Go and ask the native in the distance which side of the island he lives on.” When the messenger returns, he says, "He said he lives on the western side of the island."Is the messenger a truth teller or not? How can the visitor be sure??

  ⑦According to the messenger’s answer, the visitor can conclude that_______________?

  A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth.?

  B. the messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie.

  C. it’s hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth  teller or not.

  D. the messenger probably lives in the western side of the island because his answer may be true.

  [分析]推测有关信使(近处的当地人)情况的。我们知道,讲真话的部落住在岛的西部,撒谎的部落住在岛的东部。这个信使去问远方的当地人住在岛的哪一边(东部还是西部)。远方的当地人只能有两种情况,要么住在岛的西部,要么住在岛的东部。如果他住在岛的西部,他就是一个讲真话的人,他就会如实回答他住在西部。如果他住在岛的东部,他就是一个撒谎的人。他本来住在东部,但在回答时,必须要说谎,他只能回答他住在西部。所以远方的当地人不管是住在东部还是西部,他的回答只有一个:“我住在西部”。如果信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在西部,信使无疑是说了真话,那么信使一定是住在岛的西部。反之,如果信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在东部,那么信使就说了假话,信使肯定住在东部。故此题答案是A。

  ⑧The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong??

  A. He may live on the eastern side of the island.  ?

  B. He may live on the western side of the island.?

  C. He may be telling the truth.?

  D. He can’t be telling the truth.

  [分析]推测远方的当地人的情况。从短文提供的信息来看,我们无法判定远方的当地人是住在岛的东部还是岛的西部,两种情况都是可能存在的。此题要注意情态动词的语气。A.“他可能住在岛的西部”;B.“他可能住在岛的东部”;C.“他可能讲了真话”。上述A、B、C三种情况都是可能的。D.“他不可能讲真话”,语气太绝对。推测错误。故答案为D。?

  例4:When the young waitress near my house started saying hello to me every day, I was very happy. She was at least fifteen years younger than I.  One day she signed me to come near. When I walked over, she asked,” Are you single?"? “Why, yes." I answered, smiling at her happily.“So is my mother." she said, “Would you like to meet her?"?

  ⑨The writer talked about the waitress’ age because he thought___________.

  A. she was young               B. it a pleasure to make friends with her?

  C. she was beautiful             D. it strange for her to fall in love with him

  ⑩The waitress said hello to the writer every day because___________.?

  A. she lived near his house             B. he often went to visit her mother

  C. she wanted to be friendly with him    D. she loved him very much?

  [分析]这是两道推测原因的题目。女服务员每天向作者示好,作者产生误解,以为女孩对他有意。考虑到他们年龄相差悬殊,作者认为女孩爱上他有点奇怪。故第⑨题答案是D。女孩问作者是否单身,并提到她母亲也是单身,并邀请他与她母亲见面,可见,女孩每天向他问好,目的是想取得他的好感,进而搓和他和她母亲。第⑩题答案是C。?





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