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高考英语阅读理解专题指导-事实细节题

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-7-8 19:24:25
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第一讲   事实细节题

  所谓细节题,是指原文提到了某事物、现象或理论,题干针对原文具体叙述本身发问。一般包括直接理解题(在原文中可直接找到答案。常用who, what, when, where, why和how等提问或用与此相类似的词填空。说明文和叙述文的思考题有相当于部分是此类题)及语义转化题(需要将题目信息与原文相关信息进行语义上的转换,两者存在表达上的差异,有时需要进行加工或整理后方能得出结论。)抓住文段中的事实和细节是做好该题型的关键,也是做好其它类型问题的基础。这类题型的题干常为:

  1) When/Where did the story happen?

  2) Which of the following statements is (not) correct?

  3) Which of the following statements is (not) mentioned in the passage?

  4) Which is the right order of the events given in the passage?

  5) All the statements are true except.

  该题型几乎都可以在文章中直接找到与答案有关的信息,或是其变体。所以,搜查信息在阅读中非常重要,它包括理解作者在叙述某事时使用的具体事实、数据、图表等细节信息。在一篇短文里大部分篇幅都属于这类围绕主体展开的细节。做这类题一般采用寻读法,即先读题,然后带着问题快速阅读短文,找出与问题有关的词语或句子,再对相关部分进行分析对比,找出答案。弄清细节、准确获取信息,也是把握文章中心思想的前提。

  细节专题一:排序题

  此类试题的考查形式是在选项中列举一些具体的事实,然后对上面的事实进行排序。要求考生根据动作发生的先后顺序、时间顺序以及句子之间的逻辑关系,找出事件发生、发展的正确顺序。考生可以先找出最早的一个时间和事件,把它作为事件发生的具体点,然后使用排除法将范围一一缩小,从而快速地选出正确答案。

  例1:In the 19th century England people liked to go to the seaside. In those days, ladies wore long bathing dresses, and men wore bathing suits. Women did not walk about on the beach(沙滩)in their bathing dresses. They hired a bathing machine. A bathing machine was used for changing in, and for taking the bather down to the sea. It cost 2 pence(便士) to hire a machine and an attendant(侍者). When she had paid, the bather climbed up the back steps and got into the bathing machine . Then she changed into her bathing dress. When she had changed, the machine was pulled down to the sea. The bathing machine stoped in the water and the bather went down the front steps into the   water. If she did not want to get into the sea, the attendant pulled her in.(1996NMET)

  ①In 19th century  people who used the bathing machine usually did the following things.  Which is the right order for doing them?

  a. Changing into bathing clothes    b. Getting out of the bathing machine

  c. Paying 2 pence               d. Getting into the bathing machine

  e. Being taken down the beach     f. Getting into the water

  A. e, d, a, b, f, c   B. c, d, a, e, b, f    C. c, d, e, a, b, f     D. d, a, e, b, f, c

  [分析]答案B 题目要求找出利用bathing machine游泳的程序,显然,租用一个bathing machine是要先付钱的,所以 c就是第一个动作,下水 f 应该是最后一个动作了。这样用排除法就可以排除 A和 D 项。再看 B和C项,从第一段倒数第三句可知先a后e,故选 B。

  细节专题二:计算题

  计算题也是近几年高考中常考的内容,此类试题是在文章中直接表现出来细节事实,有的要经过具体的计算才能够得出正确的答案。具体的计算题可以是对年代的计算、月份的计算或比例的计算等。文章中经常会出现许多数字,它们对解题产生一定的影响。解答此类试题的方法是先来理解文章的大意,然后经过对比、分析、计算等就能够得出正确的答案了。

  例2:Degree

  We offer a wide choice of bachelor’s degrees (学位) for international students, which includes: Arts, Communication Studies, Social Sciences, etc. Bachelor of Music and Bachelor of Education are only for New Zealand citizens, for further information: deg@waikato.ac.nz.

  Tuition Fees(学费)

  Tuition fees are different from department to department, generally from $5,000 to $6,000 a year. For further information: tui@waikato.ac.nz.

  Accommodation(住宿)

  You can have a room in a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month with other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person. For further information: acc@waikato. ac.nz

  Health

  The Student Health Service provides excellent medical services for students. The Medical Centre is open five days a week, including student holidays with four doctor’s and nurses to meet your medical needs. For further information: heal@waikato.ac.nz.

  Sports

  The Centre is a great place to have sports activities. Trained exercise teachers can help you work out a training plan and keep you active. The sports hall has volleyball, basketball and indoor football courts and a swimming pool as well. There are also a large number of sports clubs at Waikato. For further information: sport@ waikato.ac.nz(2005安徽卷)

  ②You have to pay at least ______ a year if you study at the University of Waikato.

  A. $5,250           B. $8,000             C. $9,000           D. $11,000

  [分析]B此题为计算题。我们从所选的这些事实来看,文章中所说的Tuition Fees 每年需要from $5,000 to $6,000,而a 4-bedroom flat, which will cost about $100 a month,一年需要$1200,另外的other regular living costs of about $150 a month for one person经过计算可以知道一年需要$1800,加起来一年至少需要$8000。

  细节专题三:图形题

  在有图形试题的阅读理解中,有的图形出现在阅读理解文章中,有的出现在选项中,这些图片的出现增加了试题的直观性,同时也暗含着和文章内容相关的信息。在解答此类试题的时候,一定要把握图形中所暗含的信息,特别是有些事实是通过图片来叙述的,我们可以采用按图寻找正确答案的方法。

  例3:The Channel Islands are a group of British-owned islands lying in the English Channel(海峡), 10 to 30 miles off the French coast, and 70 to 90 miles from the English coast. There are ten islands with a total land area of 75 square miles and a total population of 123,000. The three largest islands, Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, have long been known for the fine breeds(品种)of cattle that are raised on them and named after them.

  In earliest known history the islands were considered part of Normandy, which was part of France, but the ruler of Normandy became king of England in 1066, and from then on the islands were looked upon as British land. English control was unbroken until World War II, when the Germans held the islands for five years.

  Although people on the islands speak both languages and they are considered English, their customs are more French than English.(2000年北京春季)

  ③Which of the following maps gives the right position of the Channel Islands?

  Br = Britain      Fr = France     Ch = Channel Islands

  [分析]C这是一道识图题。从第一段:The Channel Islands are a group of British-owned islands lying in the English Channel(海峡), 10 to 30 miles off the French coast, and 70 to 90 miles from the English coast.可以推断选项C正确地表达了The Channel Islands的位置

  细节专题四:其它类型

  例4:Tristan da Cunha, a 38-square-mile island, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510miles southwest of its nearest neighbor, St. Helena, and 1,950miles west of Africa. Discovered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将)of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810, the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred.

  Coming in a close second –- and often wrongly mentioned as the most distant land - is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbor, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America.

  The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around the 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous.

  On Easter Sunday, 1772, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. Today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory (智利领土). They share on street, a small airport, and a few hours of television per day.(2003年全国)

  ④It can be learned from the text that the island of Tristan da Cunha _____________.

  A.was named after its discoverer B.got its name from Holland settlers

  C.was named by the British government D.got its name from the Guinness Book of Records

  [分析]本篇选材涉及地理,为我们介绍了两座最为偏远的小岛(farthest/most distant inhabited islands),一为吉尼斯大全(Guinness Book of Records)所认定的Tristan da Cunha;另一为复活岛(Easter lsland).文中出现了比较多的专有名词.

  本题问及Tristan da Cunha小岛的命名.如能通过浏览把握本文篇章结构,则可看出,关于该岛的内容都在第1段:运用寻读(SCANNING)技巧可以找到与本题相关的线索 (关键词name)出现在该段结尾句里,通读全句可以得出答案:Discovered by the Portuguese admiral of the same name (as the island)...,与选项A一致.[答案]  A

  ⑤Which of the following is most famous for moai?

  A.Tristan da Cunha.    B.Pitcairn Island.. C. Easter Island. D.St. Helena.

  [分析]本题涉及关于moai( = stone figures)的一个细节问题:其所在地.4个选项均为岛名,因此不能依此线索查找.要按题干中所问,从第3段里找到moai所在的岛;但这里仅提到 the island,循此线索往上追寻:(3段结尾)the island = (3段开头)the mountainous 64-squaremile sland = (2段中)Easter lsland,即为答案.[答案]  C

  ⑥Which country does Easter Island belong to?

  A.Britain. B.Holland. C.Portugal. D.Chile.

  [分析]本题考查复活岛今日的归属问题.题干提问中使用的现在时态也是不容忽视的.问的是“现在”情况,不是过去.第4段中间提到Today,...Chilean territory,与答案D吻合.

  另外3个国家中,有的与此岛并不相干(A.Britain;C.Portugal);有的则只是历史上的过客(B.Holland).最大干扰项为B项.这些误选者显然只注意了短文结尾段中的On Easter Sunday,1722,however,settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name,却忽略了其中的时间因素,同样,也没能对于紧接此后的Today,2,000 people live on the Chilean territory予以足够关注,对于时态变化所传递的信息差异意识不够导致了这些考生在理解上的偏差,因而失误.[答案]D

  例5:When she looked ahead. Florence Chadwick saw nothing but a solid wall of fog. Her body was numb. She had been swimming for nearly sixteen hours. Already she was the first woman to swim the English Channel in both directions. Now at the age of 34, her goal was to become the first woman to swim from Catalina to the California coast.

  On that fourth of July morning 1952, the sea was like an ice bath and the fog was so dense. She could hardly see her support boats. Sharks cruised toward her figure, only to be driven away by rifle shots. Against the frigid grip of the sea, she struggled on, hour after hour, while millions watched on national television.

  Alongside Florence in one of the boats, her mother and here trainer offered encouragement. They told her it wasn’t much farther. But all she could see was fog. They urged her not to quit. She never had… until then. With only a half mile to go, she asked to be pulled out.

  ⑦What does “she never had…”in the third paragraph mean?

  A. She had never been so desperate.    B. She had never thought of giving it up.

  C. She had never seen such thick fog.   D. She had never swum across the strait before.

  [分析]根据上下文they urged her not to quit,以及with only a half mile to go, she asked to be pulled out. 可以推断出,她当时并没有想放弃,只不过是后来情况变化了。答案:B

  例6:Decision-thinking is not unlike poker--- it often matters not only what you think , but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think . The mental process(过程) is similar . Naturally , this card game has often been of considerable interest to people who are , by any standards , good thinkers .

  The great mathematician John von Neumann was one of the founders of game theory . In particular , he showed that all games fall into two classes ; there are what he called games of ‘perfect information’, games like chess where the players can’t hide anything or play tricks ; they don’t win by chance , but by means of logic and skills . Then there are games of ‘imperfect information’, like poker, in which it is impossible to know in advance that one course of action is better than another.

  One mistaken idea about business is that it can be treated as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse, business, politics, life itself are games which we must normally play with very imperfect information. Business decisions are often made with many unknown and unknowable factors(因素), which would ever puzzle best poker players . But few business people find it comfortable to admit that they are taking a chance , and many still prefer to believe that they are playing chess , not poker.

  ⑧An important factor in a game of imperfect information is _______.

  A. rules       B. luck        C. time        D. ideas

  [分析]短文第二段有这样一段说明:……游戏可分为两类,一种是被称为 “perfect information”的游戏,双方无法隐瞒或进行欺骗,他们不是靠碰巧获胜 ( …they don’t win by chance)。另一种则是 “imperfect information”的游戏,如打牌,游戏者不可能预先知道他出的这一道牌是否比另一道好。从作者的这种表达可以推断出,“imperfect information”游戏获胜的一个因素就是运气。因此选B。





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