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高考英语阅读理解得分秘籍:理解作者的意图

    分类:英语学习方法    |    发布日期:2012-6-28 19:24:25
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在英语考试中,阅读理解往往是决定成败的关键,巧解阅读理解中关于作者意图、观点、态度的问题是在阅读理解中取胜的关键法宝。

  作者观点态度题就是指针对作者的写作意图、观点态度和对事件的评价设问的阅读理解题目。作者在文章中不仅客观地进行叙述和说明,往往还持有某种态度,如对某一观点或赞同或反对,或肯定或批评。因此这类题主要考查学生对作者的观点、感情、态度、写作目的和意图的理解能力。

  作者的观点和态度除了直接表达外,还经常在文章中间接表达出来。考生可以通过全文的叙述,从文章的主要内容去理解作者的观点;有时作者也会在文章中用特殊的词汇表达自己的思想感情。同学们要从文章中的用词、语气或对某个细节的陈述来推断作者的态度、观点等。

  观点态度题的题干形式:作者态度观点题考查目标比较明确,题干一般都含有according to the writer, attitude, opinion, believe, consider, regard等词或短语。这类题目除了考查作者在整篇文章中所表现的态度和写作意图外,有的还考查作者对具体的某个人或事物的态度或评价。作者观点态厦题的题干主要有以下几种形式:

  1) What is the purpose of the text?/The purpose of the passage is to         .

  2) What is the opinion of the writer in this passage?

  3) What’s the author’s attitude towards…?

  4) Who are the intended readers of the passage?

  5) What does the author mean by saying "…"?

  6) From the…paragraph, what do you think the author wants to tell us?

  作者观点态度题的解题方法:作者的态度和立场一般分为三大类:支持、赞同、乐观;客观、中立;反对、批评、怀疑、悲观。同学们除了可以通过在文中寻找带有感情色彩的词来判断作者的态度外,有时还需要综合运用一些阅读方法,如:根据文章中与问题相关的细节做出判断,根据作者提供的例证推断其暗示的态度、观点,有时还需要同学们通读全文并把握文章的主旨,最后做出正确选择。下面我们以2008年部分省市高考题为例,具体分析作者观点态度题的解题方法。

  例1:

  On the first day of my visit, we went out with one of my father’s friends for lunch at an outdoor café. We walked along that afternoon, did some shopping, ate at the street table, and lauded over my son’s funny facial expressions. Gone was my father’s critical(挑剔的) air and strict rules. Who was this person I knew as my father, who seemed so friendly and interesting to be around? What had held him back before?    (2008年全国卷I A篇)

  58. What does the author think of her father after her visit to Tucson?

  A. More critical.

  B. More talkative.

  C. Gentle and friendly.

  D. Strict and hard-working.

  【解析】本题问作者对父亲的看法。A.更挑剔了;B.更健谈了;C.温和而友好;D.严厉而且勤奋。此题需要从文章的细节描写着手找到答案。根据"Gone was my father’s critical(挑剔的)air and strict rules"和"…who seemed so friendly and interesting to be around"这两句可推知作者感觉父亲不像从前那么严厉、难以相处了,父亲现在看起来友好而且有趣。答案选C。

  例2:

  People believe that climbing can do good to health. Where can you learn the skill of climbing then? If you think that you have to go to the mountains to learn how to climb, you’re wrong. Many Americans are learning to climb in city gyms(体育馆)….

  How do people climb the wall? To climb, you need special shoes and a harness (保护带) around your chest to hold you. …A beginner’s wall is usually about 15 feet high, and you climb straight up. …The most difficult part is to control your fear….

  Climbing attracts people because it’s good exercise for almost everyone. You use your whole body, especially your arms and legs. This sport gives your body a complete workout. When you climb, both your mind and your body can become stronger. (2008年安徽卷C篇)

  67. Why does the author write this passage?

  A. To tell people where to find gyms.

  B. To prove the basic need for climbing.

  C. To encourage people to climb mountains.

  D. To introduce the sport of wall climbing.

  【解析】题目问作者的写作目的,这在文章中并没有指明,需要同学们通读全文来把握文章大意。从全文来看,本文主要讲述的是攀登运动越来越受到人们的青睐,但也需要训练,详尽地介绍了对身体有益的室内攀登运动。四个选项对作者写作意图表述如下:A.告诉人们哪里有体育馆;B.证明人们对攀登有着最基本的需求;c.鼓励人们去登山;D.介绍室内攀登这项运动。选项A不是文章的主题;选项B在文章结尾段虽有涉及,但也算不上是主要内容;作者虽然提及了攀登的好处,但并未明确鼓励人们参与此项运动,因此C不正确。答案为D。

例3:

  The number of married women who want to continue working increases rapidly because they enjoy their jobs. However, if they want to have children, they immediately have serious problems. Though most companies allow women to leave their jobs for a short time to have a baby, they expect women with babies to give up their jobs. In short, if they want to bring up children properly, both parents have to work, but it is hard for mothers to work. Indeed, women who want to continue working have to choose between having children or keeping their jobs.

  In a word, Asian governments must take steps to improve the present situation as soon as possible. (2008年安徽卷E篇)

  75. The writer seems to believe that Asian governments should              .

  A. let women stay at home and have a baby

  B. allow one of the parents to go out to work

  C. care for the growing needs of women for jobs

  D. punish the companies that permit women to leave

  【解析】题目问作者在亚洲政府对女性就业这一问题上给出了什么建议。A.让女性回归家庭生儿育女;B.允许父母中的一个外出工作;C.对女性在工作方面的需求多加关注;D.惩罚那些允许女性离职的公司。根据第一段最后一句话"Indeed, women who…or keeping their jobs"及最后一段可知女性所面临的实际困难,所以亚洲各国政府应该采取一些措施改变这一现状来避免出现更多的DINK家庭,而最有效的措施是C项。

  例4:

  Well, I had nothing against feeling great and if Alex could jog every day, anyone could. So I took up jogging seriously and gave it a good two months of my life, and not a day more. Based on my experience, jogging is the most overvalued form of exercise around. And judging from the number of the people who left our neighborhood jogging army, I’m not alone in my opinion. (2008年浙江卷D篇)

  54. What was the writer’s attitude towards jogging in the beginning?

  A. He felt it was worth a try.

  B. He was very fond of it.

  C. He was strongly against it.

  D. He thought it must be painful.

  【解析】本段讲述了作者通过亲自参加jogging(慢跑)锻炼,体会到jogging并不像人们想象中的那么好,他认为自己的锻炼方式也可以达到健身的目的。题目问作者起初对慢跑的看法如何。A.他认为值得一试;B.他非常喜欢这项运动;C.他极力反对这项运动;D.他认为这项运动非常痛苦。从"I had nothing against feeling great and if Alex could jog every day, anyone could."和"So I took up jogging seriously and gave it a good two months of my life, and not a day more."两句,我们可以看出作者起初对慢跑并无排斥心理,而且认为值得一试,A项较符合作者的态度。

  例5:

  It was in a tree, too, that our days of fooling around in the woods came to an end. By then some of us had reached seventh grade and had begun the rough ride of adolescence(青春期). In March, the month when we usually took to the woods again after winter, two friends and I set out to go exploring. We climbed a tree, and all of a sudden it occurred to all three of us at the same time that we really were rather big to be up in a tree. Soon there would be the spring dances on Friday evenings in the high school cafeteria. (2008年天津卷E篇)

  55. How does the author feel about his childhood?

  A. Happy but short.

  B. Lonely but memorable.

  C. Boring and meaningless.

  D. Long and unforgettable.

  【解析】题目问作者如何评价自己的童年。A.快乐却短暂;B.孤单却值得回忆;C.乏味、无趣;D.漫长而又难忘。根据"It was in a tree, too, that our days of fooling around in the woods came to an end."和 下句"In March…,"以及下句"…and all of a sudden it occurred to a11 three of us…high school cafeteria"可以看出作者是在慨叹童年时光快乐却短暂。答案选A。

  高考阅读理解设题越来越灵活。题目难度也逐年增加,作者的态度观点已不仅仅局限在"是与非"、"支持与反对"、"乐观与悲观"的选择上,而是加入了更多对文章细节和主旨大意理解的要求。解答这类题的时候,同学们要注意题目的提问方法是否有明确的针对性。即是针对文章中的一部分进行设题。还是对全文的写作目的或意图进行考查。结合多种阅读技巧有助于同学们做出正确选择。





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